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Abstracts

Papers collected by Michel Feugère, Ergün Lafli and Arthur Muller

Izmir, June 2007

Editorial Note to the Abstracts of the Terracottas Conference:

A Brief Introduction to Greek and Roman Coroplastic Studies

in the Eastern Mediterranean

Ergün LAFLI

Dr Ergün LAFLI (Izmir)

Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi, Arkeoloji Bölümü, Tınaztepe/Kaynaklar Yerleşkesi, Buca, TR-35160 Izmir, TURKEY.

<elafli@yahoo.ca>

The aim of this online Abstracts Booklet is to introduce the papers that will be presented at The Terracottas Conference to be held on 2-6 June 2007 at Dokuz Eylül University (DEU) in Izmir, Turkey. It also aims to give a summarised impression of recent innovations in coroplastic studies.

The main objective of this meeting is to report on the state of research concerning the terracotta figurines of Antiquity in a broad sense, between ca. 7th century B.C. and 4th century A.D. in the Greek and Roman Eastern Mediterranean. The geographical areas concerned are Turkey, Greece, Cyprus, Egypt, Syria, Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, the rest of the Near East and the Black Sea countries. The focus is, however, Asia Minor. To date 157 participants from more than 24 different countries have registered for the Terracottas Conference; 45 of whom will give a lecture and the rest will present posters. It seems that all the important issues concerning coroplastic studies will be discussed in a broad extension of the eastern Mediterranean geographical area. Main sections of the conference will be ‘generalities’, ‘workshops & production’, ‘distribution (i.e. Ionian koine)’, ‘production centres’, ‘iconographical types’, ‘domestic finds’, ‘funeral finds’ and ‘votives’.

The quantities of figurines that have come to light on numerous sites, as well as recent research on the various collections from the geographical area concerned, now allow us to make significant additions to the archaeological evidence to which we owe recent progress in coroplastic research in western Europe. Concentrating on unpublished finds or collections from the Eastern Mediterranean and Asia Minor, the colloquium aims to tackle a series of questions which can be grouped as four principal interlinked and overlapping themes: production and diffusion, iconography and function.

— Production: we include papers presenting and characterising production sites (from minor workshops to large manufacturies specialising in coroplastic production) with their installations and production tools (moulds). The moulding process, which was standardised in Greece from the 7th c. B.C. onwards, is now well understood, as are the manufacturing processes linked with it, such as derivative moulding; so one could produce evidence for particular or original production modalities, as for instance the phenomenon of the moulded ‘signatures’. Papers on other fabrication techniques (modelling, the potter’s wheel, mixed techniques), which are older or which survive when the moulding technique came into use, have also been included.

— Diffusion: in this area one could study the modalities of diffusion: distribution of objects, figurines and moulds, by trade or by itinerant craftsmen; derivative production and its transformations, through remoulding; simple imitation by modelling new prototypes directly inspired by existing products. In this way it might be possible to reconstruct ‘production series’ involving several production centres, and to follow the formation of a repertoire for a common shape, such as the so-called ‘Rhodo-Ionian’ koine for the Archaic period and especially the Tanagra style of the Hellenistic period. The reasons and the significance of their widespread and rapid diffusion should also be examined. On the other hand, the longevity of particular shapes or styles also needs explanation.

— Iconography: a large part of the immense coroplastic repertoire is well understood and easily interpreted, but a lot of elements are still problematic. There is, for instance, the case of rare objects, original creations with limited diffusion; and also the case of complete families of objects, the significance of which is still a matter of debate, such as the protomes or the numerous female figurines – were they goddesses or simply mortal women ? Moreover, it remains questionable if this significance is universal or changes from place to place, from period to period. Texts and other images, which are sometimes more explicit (vases, sculpture, engraved gems…), will sometimes be a useful aid for papers dealing with such questions.

— Function: through the abundant finds of certain well known sites, it generally seems that the votive and funerary functions of figurines is fully understood. However, the chronological and geographical extension of these practices often still needs to be defined, their recipients to be identified (deities, sex, age at death?), and their exact meaning and significance to be understood. As to finds from houses, their interpretation – “genre scene” and simple decoration, evidence for domestic cults, toys, magic or apotropaic objects ?— still very often remains problematic. This shows how much we need papers on precise archaeological contexts which could give us some answers in this field.

As mentioned above, special attention will be given to Asia Minor: until now little attention has been paid to coroplastic studies in Turkey. In this conference several different topics that are crucial for understanding the development of coroplastic studies in Turkey from its beginning in the 19th century until the present day will be presented. The most important problems can be summarised as follows:

1. difficulty in counting and processing such a large number of items;

2. problems facing the analysis of the material from the excavated contexts;

3. lack of contextual assistance in dating the figurines from the museum pieces;

4. lack of a standard language for the description of their stylistic analysis.

While these problems create difficulties in analyzing the material, they do not present insurmountable obstacles. For example, the lack of contextual evidence for certain types of figurines can be overcome by using well-documented figurines from other sites, such as Tarsus, Pergamon or Troy. Any further improvement of the dating must rely on both stylistic interpretation and comparisons with work in other media, such as stone and bronze; this has not yet been thoroughly explored. The figurines can be examined in view of their cultic context and can be looked at in relation to two parts: functional and symbolic. However, in most cases excavated materials in Turkey have been presented without any contextual analysis [this problem has been examined in Ergün Laflı, Les figurines romaines en terre cuite de Seleucia Sidera en Pisidie (Turquie), Orient-Express. Notes et nouvélles d´archéologie oriéntale 1998/3, pp. 73-78 in detail]. Through the medium of this conference we would like to provide a useful overview of Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic and Roman coroplastic techniques and focus on what the material from Asia Minor and the rest of the Eastern Mediterranean can add to the existing knowledge base. (For the state of current knowledge see Ergün Laflı, A Bibliography of Hellenistic and Roman Coroplastic Art from Asia Minor: <http://home.rhein-zeitung.de/~rzentral/anadecom/TurkishTerrakottas.htm>.) In addition, museums and their coroplastic collections will be examined.

We hope very much that the Proceedings of this Conference will be the standard reference for coroplastic studies in this area for some time to come and will break new ground with regard to the wider aspects of this subject.

January 26, 2007,

Izmir.

Les figurines de terre cuite de la ville hellénistique de Petres

(Macédoine occidentale)

Polyxène ADAM VELENI

Mrs Polyxene Adam VELENI (Thessaloniki)

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, GREECE

<velenis@hist.auth.gr>

Petres est une une ville située à l’extrémité la plus occidentale de la Macédoine, dans la région de l’ancienne Eordée : tout indique qu’elle était un satellite de la capitale Pella, peut-être fondée par Philippe II. La phase d’occupation la plus ancienne observée remonte vers la fin du IVe siècle avant notre ère. La période de prospérité de la ville commence à la fin du IIIe siècle av. J.-C., se poursuit au IIe siècle et au début du Ier siècle av. J.-C. Durant cette période, son économie se transforme progressivement : de rurale elle devient agro-artisanale. La Via Egnatia a sans doute joué un rôle déterminant dans cette évolution : traversant la plaine au sud, elle a transformé la ville en nœud de communication Est-Ouest.

Au IIe et au Ier siècle av. J.-C., se développe un atelier de céramique dont la production ne se borne pas à la simple imitation fidèle des modèles des grands centres urbains de la Macédoine : au contraire, il produit également ses propres créations. Au IIe siècle av. J.-C. fonctionne également un important atelier de coroplathe. Un nombre élevé de moules pour la fabrication de figurines ainsi qu’un positif en terre cuite pour la fabrication d’un moule de statuette féminine n’offrent qu’un échantillon limité des productions de l’atelier. Les sujets les plus fréquents sont les figures féminines drapées dans le longs chitons, les bustes d’Enodia ou de Cybèle, les Éros et les représentations de Dionysos ou d’Aphrodite.

Les produits de cet atelier révèlent l’influence puissante d’un centre dynamique de production, la capitale macédonienne, Pella. Dans plusieurs cas, on soupçonne l’importation depuis Pella de moules originaux ou encore la prise de surmoules sur des figurines fabriquées dans les ateliers de la capitale. Des créations parfois maladroites mais en tout cas originales font également partie du répertoire de cet atelier. Sa production semble destinée au seul marché local, sans ambition plus lointaine.

Traduction: Arthur Muller

Bull Figurines from the Sanctuary of Apollon Clarios in Ionia

Duygu Sevil AKAR TANRIVER

Mrs Duygu Sevil AKAR TANRIVERDİ (Izmir)

T.C. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi, Arkeoloji Bölümü,

Tınaztepe/Kaynaklar Yerleşkesi, Buca, TR-35160, Izmir, TURKEY.

<duyguakar2002@yahoo.com>; <duygu.akar@deu.edu.tr>

Between the years 2002-2004 a geometric round atlar, earthed by a further Archaic rectangular altar was found at Claros. This altar was abondened in 6th century B.C. after getting filled by stones and various cultic objects. Among others one of the most spectacular cultic object group found in this altar were bull terracottas of 8th and 7th centuries B.C. Most of these bull figurines are large sized and resemble to that of Samian Heraion. They were made by different techniques. Sizes of these figurines differ from miniature to hollow massive that were produced at wheels and therefore hollow. Most of samples have a simple band ornamentation, but in some cases careful geometric designs were also applied.

In this paper bull figurines from the round altar at Claros will be presented. Two main focus of this paper will be their production techniques as well as their typologies. Also the cult of Apollon Clarios at Claros will be subjected.

Translated by Ergün Laflı

Figurine de terre cuite en Numidie

Nouria AKLI

Mrs Nouria AKLI (Alger)

Université d’Algérie, Institut national d’archéologie d’Algérie, Sidi Bennour

Sidi Abdelah Zeralda Alger, ALGERIA.

<nokali2001@yahoo.fr>

La civilisation de la Numidie antique est ouverte sur la Méditerranée. Dès les temps les plus anciens, ses habitants ont montré un profond respect à l’égard de leurs morts. La tombe était avant tout conçue comme une maison, une demeure pour l’éternité, dans laquelle on prenait soin de déposer de la vaisselle, des aliments, et divers objets qui devaient permettre une vie dans l’au-delà. Les figurines de terre cuite, qui en général sont porteuses d’information sur les sociétés anciennes et leurs croyances, ne semblent cependant pas avoir constitué un élément privilégié du mobilier funéraire en Numidie, ce qui pose plus d’un problème d’interprétation.

Les rares figurines mises au jour en contexte funéraire n’ont pas été étudiées jusqu’à présent. Cette communication en proposera une approche typologique et essaiera d’en tirer de nouvelles données sur la société numide.

Archaeometrical Studies on the Surface Pottery from Galatian Hilltop Sites

Ali Akın AKYOL, Şahinde DEMİRCİ,

Asuman TÜRKMENOĞLU, Levent VARDAR

Ali Akın AKYOL (Ankara)/Şahinde DEMİRCİ (Ankara)

/Asuman TÜRKMENOĞLU (Ankara)/Levent E. VARDAR (Ankara)

Ankara Üniversitesi, Başkent Meslek Yüksek Okulu, Konservasyon Programı,

Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi, Ek Bina, Zemin Kat, Sıhhiye,

TR-06100 Ankara, TURKEY.

<aliakinakyol@gmail.com>

In this contribution, 59 sherds from 22 fortification-settlements in Galatia are being examined. These archaeometrical studies concern physical characterization, mineralogical examination and petrographic analyses.

It seems that most of the sherds are common wares because of their porous feature as well as their capacity in water resistance. At these samples smektit, biotit, clorit and illit sort of clay minerals were observed. The fact that no high temperature minerals were observed indicates that their firing temperature should be 800-900°C. These sherds can be classified into 5 classes according to their mineral contents; according to the settlement type they can be divided into 4 sub-groups.

Strong variety among the sherds indicates that these pieces can belong to different cultures or they were using different raw materials. It is also possible to assume about a tide internregional exchange.

Translated by Ergün Laflı

Archaic East-Greek Terracottas in South Sicily: Old Problems and New Data

Marina ALBERTOCCHI

Prof. Marina ALBERTOCCHI (Venice)

Palazzo Bernardo Favero, San Polo 1977/A, I-30125 Venice, ITALY.

<marnick@tin.it>

Significant items for the study of distribution of Eastern Greek figurines in Archaic period in the Mediterranean certainly come from the analysis of the archaeological evidence from Sicily, a profitable market-place for the artisans of the Greek East. Recent publications concerning some classes of terracottas and votive contexts in Selinous and Akragas allow us to outline a reassessment of the chronological and typological picture of Eastern Greek imports in this area of the island. Moreover, research now in progress at Gela (see the paper of S. Bertesago), enrich our knowledge about the arrival of clay figurines on the southern coasts of Sicily, which according to the amount of published finds seems to offer a good sample for coroplastic researches. Aim of the paper is try to define which was the typological repertory most in vogue in Archaic Sicily, and to check the cultual value of specific iconographies widely widespread and favoured for a long period of time.

Les appliques et les bijoux en terre-cuites à Callatis

Maria ALEXANDRESCU VIANU

Prof. Maria ALEXANDRESCU VIANU (Bucharest)

Institute of Archaeology, H.Coanda str. 11, RO-010667, Bucharest, ROUMANIA;

and Str. Av. Nicolae Drossu 7, RO-012071 Bucharest, ROUMANIA.

<malexandrescu@gmail.com>

La communication traitera d’un complexe funéraire mis au jour dans la nécropole hellénistique de Callatis, comportant un grand nombre de bijoux et d’appliques de sarcophage en terre cuite et crue : on discutera ici l’origine de cet ensemble. La découverte est particulièrement intéressante du fait de l’appartenance de ce type de complexe funéraire à un horizon culturel fréquent sur les côtes nord et ouest du Pont, depuis la péninsule de Taman jusqu’à Apollonia Pontique, durant la deuxième moitié du IVe s. av. J.-C. Le problème des relations entre la Mer Noire d’une part et la Macédoine et l’Italie de l’autre, dès le troisième quart du IVe siècle, se trouve au centre de cette discussion.

Τerracotta Figurines from the Cemeteries of Chaironeia, in North Boiotia

Anna ALEXANDROPOULOU

Dr Anna ALEXANDROPOULOU (Athens)

Hellenic Ministry of Culture, Committee for the Preservation of Apollo Epikourios at Vassai,

c/o Arktinou 2, Athens, GREECE.

<anna.alexandropoulou@yahoo.gr>

Two important cemeteries, dating from the classical period, are brought into light by recent excavations in the wider area of Chaironeia.

Among the finds, there are many terracottas of well known boiotian types. But dominant are the peplophoroi with the tall polos, the protome (busts), the figures of young men holding or embracing cocks, and the figurines of animals. Less known types, such as the hermai, are also represented.

A consistent feature in the production of the terracottas from the cemeteries of Chaironeia is the use of worn moulds. Interestingly, some of the peplophoroi were made in the same mould. The gray clay and the low standard of firing that characterizes most of them, strongly point to local workshops as the place of origin of these terracotta figurines.

Archaic Architectural Terracottas from Euromos

Suat ATEŞLİER

Dr Suat ATEŞLİER (Aydın)

Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi, Arkeoloji Bölümü, Aytepe,

TR-09010 Aydın, TURKEY.

<sateslier@adu.edu.tr>

This paper presents a preliminary report of the first stage on the architectural terracottas of archaic period found in the excavations of the Temple of Zeus at Euromos carried out from 1969 to 1975 under the direction of the Ümit Serdaroğlu. At the north-west corner excavation also revealed a large collection of close-packed archaic architectural terracottas (ca. 800 pieces). These terracottas must have been transported to bothros from an unknown Archaic sanctuary which probably have three or four buildings. Terracottas comprises a procession of the gods in the carriage pulled by winged horses; two pieces of high relief which shows a banquet scene, two men on a couch, probably belong to main frieze or pediment? Also, marvelous fragments of an acroterion with gorgon head; additionally pentagonal antefixes with gorgoneion, lion head and lotus flowers; eaves tiles carrying a reliefed and painted guilloche; a frieze of centauromachy, a frieze of spiral ornaments, many pieces of raking sima decorated with partridges and pieces of lateral simai ornamented with lotus flowers show excellent and different workmanship and form an interesting group. These terracottas points out probably three or four Ionic buildings perhaps located in same sanctuary. The childs and the dogs, who played a significant role and accompanied walking with the same tempo, and seriously in the procession of the gods in the carriage pulled by winged horses, make the frieze so different iconographically, and put forward our doubts that the archaic sanctuary may have been related with the cult of Artemis-Hecate. The identification of the gods is yet problematic and the represented figures lack attributes. The context and iconographic content of the procession bear specific features.

Die Figurinnen aus eine thrakische Stadt in Karaevlialtı

(antike Heraion Teichos) bei Tekirdağ

Neşe ATİK

Dr Neşe ATİK (Istanbul)

Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi, Arkeoloji Bölümü, Meclis-i Mebusan Cad. 24, Orya Han B Blok, 85 B, Salıpazarı, TR-34427 Istanbul, TURKEY.

<atik@msu.edu.tr>

Die Ausgrabungen in Karaevlialtı bei Tekirdağ (Türkei), die eine Zusammenarbeit der Mimar-Sinan- Güzel-Sanatlar-Universität mit dem Tekirdağ Museum sind, wurden im Jahre 2000 begonnen und im Jahre 2001, 2004 - 2006 fortgesetzt.

Die Besiedlung liegt am Marmara Meer (antike Propontis) und ist etwa 15 km östlich von der modernen Stadt Tekirdağ entfernt. Die Höyük-Siedlung erstreckt sich über einem flachen ebene an der Küste, welche den Seehandel begünstigte, wovon heute nur noch im Mündungsgebiet des modernen Flussverlaufes die Reste eines Hafens zeugen. Das Schutzgebiet, welches in den vergangenen Jahren agrarisch genutzt wurde, schließt auch eine Nekropole mit ein, in welcher sich vier zum Teil zerstörte Tumuli-Gräber erkennen lassen. Die Kulturschichten dieser Höyük-Siedlung datieren durchgehend von die Bronzezeit bis Ende der byzantinischen Zeit. Nach antiken Beschreibungen sowie der Tabula Peutingeriana und da die Stadt an der Via Egnatia liegt läßt sich diese antike Besiedlung mit der thrakischen Stadt “Heraion Teichos” identifizieren. Wahrscheinlich bekam die Stadt diesen Namen während der Kolonizierung der Stadt Perinthos und ihrer Umgebung durch die Ionier aus Samos erst im 6 Jh. v.Chr. Dies spiegelt sich auch in der Namensgebung wieder, in welcher wir die Hauptgöttin der Samier wiederfinden.

Die Thraker das stämmenreiche Volk der Balkanhalbinsel waren - wie Herodot uns berichtet- nie einig. Wie es etwa seit dem Ende des 8. Jh. v.Chr bekannt ist, regierten mehrere Königtümer nebeneinander ihre Existenz wird bis Ende des 7. Jh n.Chr überliefert. Unter diesen herrschten die Odrysen in dem türkischen Teil Thrakiens, ihre Blütezeit war das 5. und 4. Jh. v.Chr., während nach der Regierungszeit des Königs Kersobleptes der langsame Verfall des Königtums stattfindet.

Nach den schriftlichen Quellen besaß König Kersobleptes eine Burganlage in Heraion Teichos, welche vom makedonischen König Philipp II. belagert worden ist. Durch die erste Sondage auf der Akropolis im Jahre 2000 kamen ein Teil einer 2.5 m starken Burgmauer und das Nordtor mit zwei Türmen ans Tageslicht. Aus einer Sondage, die auf dem höchsten Punkt der Akropolis vorgenommen worden ist, wurde die Fortsetzung der zum Teil zerstörten Burgmauer freigelegt. Sowohl an dieser Stelle, als auch um das Nordtor der Befestigung herum kamen viele Kleinfunde ans Tageslicht. Darunter sind die thrakische Münzen, der Odrysen-Dynastie (ab Hebryzelmes bis Rhoimetalkes), die schwarz- und rotfigurige Vasenfragmente und die tönerne Figurinnen in grösser Anzahl. Die tönerne Figurinnen dieser Burganlage lassen sich ohne stratigraphische Unterbrechung von der Mitte des 6. Jh. v.Chr. bis in das 1. Jh.n.Chr. datieren. Die Figurinen sind inhaltmäβig vielfältig: die sitzende, stehende männliche und weibliche Figuren, die Götter und die Götinnen und die Tiere.

In der Nähe des Nordtores, auf einer prominenten Stelle innerhalb der Burgmauer der Akropolis wurde ein Doppelhof freigelegt, der von mehreren Räumen umgeben ist. In diesem Bau, der durch die Münzen des thrakischen Königs Roimatalkes, die Tonfigurinen sowie die Sigillatascherben in das 1. Jh. v. und 1. Jh. n. Chr. datiert werden kann, kamen mehrere Gegenstände zu Tage, die mit kultischen Aktivitäten sowie dem praktizieren der Heilkunst in Verbindung zu bringen sind. Ein kleiner tönerner Ofen für Medizinherstellung, eine Reihe von Gefäßfragmenten z.B. ein Fragment aus einem tönernen Behälter mit der Inschrift Φαρμα= Medizin, ein kleines Siebgefäß und ein kleines Salbgefäß aus Ton, ein Meßlöffel aus Knochen, die in diesem Gebäudekompleks gefunden worden sind, sind für die Herstellung und Aufbewahrung der Medikamente erforderliche Gegenstände. Die Existenz mehrerer medizinischen Geräte wie z.B. ein Forseps, ein Spatül, ein Ohrlöffel, mehrere Haken sowie einer Nadel, im selben Gebäudekomplex lässt eine Praxis der Heilkunde in diesem Gebäude wahrscheinlich werden. Die gefundenen Votivfiguren aus Ton, die in der Antike dem Heilgott Asklepios geweiht wurden, weisen ebenso auf einen Kult- und Heilort in Heraion Teichos hin.

Die tönerne Figurinen, die in großer Zahl gefunden worden sind, deuten auf einen Kultort bzw. mehrerer Kultorte (durch vorhanden sein mehrererr Gottheiten aus Terra-Kotta), die durchgehend von der Mitte des 6. Jh. v.Chr. bis in das 1. Jh. n.Chr. im Betrieb waren, hin. Ebenso erhärten die gefundenen Votivfigurinen sowie die medizinischen Geräte den Verdacht, dass in Heraion Teichos neben einem Kultbetrieb auch praktische Heilkunst ausgeführt wurde.

Le projet de Corpus des outils de production des coroplathes grecs :

Objectifs, methodes, exemples

Christine AUBRY, Arthur MULLER

Mrs Christine AUBRY

IGE, centre de recherche Halma-Ipel – UMR 8164

Université Charles-de-Gaulle – Lille 3

BP 60149, F 59653 Villeneuve d’Ascq, FRANCE

<christine.aubry@univ-lille3.fr>

Prof. Arthur MULLER

Centre de recherche Halma-Ipel – UMR 8164

Université Charles-de-Gaulle – Lille 3

BP 60149, F 59653 Villeneuve d’Ascq, FRANCE

<arthur.muller@univ-lille3.fr>

Dans son approche de la coroplathie grecque, l’équipe du centre de recherche de Lille a jusqu’à présent souvent privilégié les questions techniques et plus généralement tout ce qui peut nous éclairer sur le fonctionnement d’un artisanat original dans l’antiquité, dans la mesure où il utilise le procédé fondamentalement mécanique du moulage. Il est donc logique que l’étude des produits mène maintenant à celle des outils de production, les moules. Par rapport au nombre de figurines recueillies, celui des moules reste modeste mais ne s’en compte pas moins en milliers d’objets ; surtout, ces objets sont dispersés (dans les musées et les publications) et lorsqu’ils sont étudiés, c’est presque toujours d’un point de vue iconographique, pour l’image qu’ils portent en creux, et non comme outil de production. Aussi avons-nous développé le projet de constitution d’un corpus international qui réunirait, d’un point de vue plus adapté, les outils de production d’objets céramiques moulés (moules de figurines surtout, mais aussi de lampes, de terres-cuites architecturales) connus à ce jour.

La communication présentera les objectifs visés par ce corpus (contribution à l’histoire de l’art et l’iconographie, mais surtout l’histoire des techniques, l’histoire économique), la méthode qui sera mise en œuvre (appel à collaboration internationale, constitution d’une base de données électronique), les outils déjà créés (lexique et bordereau d’analyse des moules), et présentera quelques exemples significatifs de moules insérés dans des « séries ».

Ateliers de coroplathes dans l’Égypte hellénistique et romaine.

État des recherches

Pascale BALLET

Prof. Pascale BALLET (Poitiers)

Université de Poitiers, 8, rue René Descartes, F-86022 Poitiers Cedex, FRANCE.

<Pascale.Ballet@univ-poitiers.fr> ; <pascale_ballet@yahoo.fr>

Depuis les travaux pionniers d’Evaristo Breccia, centrés sur les productions alexandrines, un certain nombre de recherches, menées sur le terrain et dans les musées, ont mis en évidence de nouveaux ateliers producteurs de figurines de terre cuite moulées (Tell Atrib, région de Péluse, Coptos), d’autres ont permis de mieux cerner les faciès alexandrins. En revanche, les centres présumés du Fayoum n’ont pas encore fait l’objet de recherches systématiques, ce qui laisse dans l’ombre une partie importante du matériel coroplathique de l’Égypte gréco-romaine. Enfin, la question des relations entre les ateliers des potiers et ceux de coroplathes doit être de nouveau soulevée (Bouto).

C’est un état des recherches, fondé sur un essai de caractérisation des argiles et des pâtes, qui sera donc présenté, destiné d’une part à cartographier les ateliers de coroplathes, d’autre part à souligner la richesse des composantes iconographiques et techniques du fonds documentaire égyptien.

Products of Argive Coroplastic Workshops

from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Period

Anna BANAKA

Mrs Anna BANAKA (Nafplion)

Hellenic Ministry of Culture, Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Syntagmatos Square, GR-21100, Nafplion, GREECE.

<chrysanthi.gallou@nottingham.ac.uk>

The subject of this presentation is the production of the coroplastic workshops at Argos and its wider region from the Archaic to the Hellenistic period, as this is attested in the excavations of the D’ Ephorate of Prehistoric & Classical Antiquities. The terracottas’s places of recovery (graves, sanctuaries’ bothroi, domestic contexts) are pointed out and the investigation of their use and interpretation (furnishing, offerings, ritual process, products of workshops) is undertaken. Brief reference will be made to their iconography and artistic style aiming at the determination of autonomous production or, when possible, at the location of coroplastic centres with direct or indirect influence.

Terracotta Figurines of Argive Coroplastic in the Archaic Period

Aikaterini BARAKARI

Mrs Aikaterini BARAKARI (Athens)

Ministry of Culture in the Ephorate of Paleonthropology and Speleology, c/o Ardittou 34 B, GR-11636 Athens, GREECE.

<protocol@eps.culture.gr>; <maria.spathi@web.de>

A great number of terracotta figurines comes from Argive coroplastic workshops. These figurines started at the end of seventh century B.C. and reached its zenith around the middle of the 6th century until the turn of the 6th-5th century. There are two forms, handmade and mould-made, but both techniques may also be combined in the same figurine. There are two main types, standing and seated.

The first coherent and still the richest information about Argive types of terracottas comes from the Argive sanctuary of Hera, from other sanctuaries of Argolid (the sanctuary of Tiryns, the Mycenaen Agamemnoneion, the sanctuary of Apollon Maleata at Epidaure, the sanctuary of Asini) and from the ancient city of Argos (the Aphrodite sanctuary, the sanctuary of Apollon Pythios and graves material).

The excavations of French School of Antiquities and the Greek Archaeological Service in the ancient city of Argos added a lot of terracotta figurines of local characteristic types. These objects seem to have different functions and related with cult practice, funerary customs (from graves as offerings) or tomb cult.

The last few years new evidence from recent archaeological research comes from different places or settlement quarters in the city of Argos. The majority of the figurines comes from votive bothros and deposits, and indicate cult activity and ritual practice in the Archaic period.

Harpocrates on Rheneia:

Two Egyptianizing Terracotta Figurines from the Necropolis of Delos.

Caitlín Eilís BARRETT

Ms Caitlín Eilís BARRETT (New Haven, CT)

Yale University, P.O. Box 207241, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

<caitlin.barrett@yale.edu>

During the Hellenistic period, numerous domestic contexts on Delos and some tombs from the Delian necropolis on Rheneia contained terracotta figurines depicting Egyptian or Egyptianizing deities. Although many houses and tombs produced terracotta figurines, only a minority contained Egyptianizing figurines. I propose to determine (1) what commonalities exist among the possessors of those figurines, and (2) what sort of social meanings and religious beliefs they were signifying through their possession and use of these Egyptianizing artifacts. To answer these questions, it is necessary to treat the figurines as artifacts in an archaeological context rather than isolated objets d'art. The most complete extant publication of these objects (Laumonier 1956) presents only summary descriptions of their findspots, making it difficult to determine how they were used and who used them, and dates them based exclusively on stylistic characteristics rather than stratigraphy, complicating the question of when they were used. However, an examination of the original field notebooks from the early excavations at Delos makes it possible to re-contextualize some of these artifacts and analyze them as part of larger assemblages of household finds, in order to investigate the cultural background and social position of the Delians who used these figurines. Additionally, an examination of the terracottas’ ceramic fabric and technological style can shed light on their likely places of manufacture and the cultural origins of the coroplasts who made them.

The present paper focuses on a specific subgroup of these figurines: phallic figurines of Harpocrates from funerary contexts on Rheneia. Such images are often dismissed as “grotesque,” yet a more detailed examination of their iconography and archaeological context reveals that they demonstrate a highly sophisticated understanding of Egyptian theological concepts. Furthermore, an analysis of the technological style and fabric of these figurines suggests that they were probably Egyptian imports rather than local productions.

Figurines with Musical Representation in the Sanctuary of Fontana Calda

in Greek Sicily (VI-III sec. B.C.).

Angela BELLIA

Dr Angela BELLIA (Agrigento)

Università degli studi di Bologna, Via Dante, 145, I-92100 Agrigento, ITALY.

<angelabellia1@virgilio.it>; <angelamaria.bellia2@unibo.it>

In the Sanctuary of the Fontana Calda in Butera, a town in the central-south of Siciliy, between Gela and Agrigento, they have brought to light a sacred deposit which is one of the richest of the Island. Among the many findings that have been discovered, the ones that stand out most are the statuettes of girls playing musical instruments. Today they are kept in the Regional Archaeological Museum of Gela.

The discovery, made in the 1950s, revealed, amongst many other things, hundreds of single statuettes of players of aulos, tympanon, kymbala and harp and groups of players of aulos and tympanon. They were statuettes made of clay by local craftsmen who used moulds. They were made for the local market. These can be put into two groups. In the first group we have statuettes with their heads covered by mantles. They can be dated back to between the end of the VIth century B.C. and the beginning of the Vth century B.C. They are about 6 cm. high. In the second group we have statuettes with the typical hairstyle of the IVth century B.C., with their hair put up on their heads. They are up to 15,5 cm. high.

Actually there are no studies that have tried to give an interpretation of «musical offerings» represented in these little clay figures whose production presents a continuity of about two centuries. Many other places in Sicily have discovered this particular kind of coroplastics, especially sanctuaries like Fontana Calda that were dedicated to “chthonic” divinities. If it is possible to explain the presence in the votive findings in Butera, of standing divinities and offerers holding a piglet or a torch, because they are sacred objects dedicated to Demeter, the problem concerning the function of the statuettes of the female musicians remains unsolved. The portrayals seem to refer to ceremonies where the protagonists were exclusively women: the musical instruments perhaps seem to evoke exact episodes of myth and the sorrowful search by the mother of Kore who had been abducted by Hades, King of the Underworld. Music was the background in every moment of the sacred ritual of which the female musicians of Fontana Calda offer a rich and singular repertory.

Terracotta Figurines from the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore at Corinth

Agiatis BENARDOU

Ms Agiatis BENARDOU (London/Athens)

British School at Athens, Souedias 52, GR-10676 Athens, Greece.

<agiati.benardou@gmail.com>

This site of the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, located on the N slope of the Acrocorinth, displays perhaps the clearest evidence of expansion and innovation of the region of the Corinthia during the Classical period. Recent archaeological work and publications make it the best-studied sanctuary in the region and thus the surest foundation for study of the religious and cultic behaviour of the Corinthians in the Classical era.

The importance of this sanctuary lies in the nature of votive activity and also dining practice. The striking number of Classical terracotta votive figurines of the deities (numbering ca. 24,000) have recently been presented by Gloria Merker in her recent Corinth XVIII, iv. Corinth undoubtedly fits the pattern of a fifth-century rise in terracotta dedications globally in Greece, however the imagery on terracottas raises several questions. Moreover, terracotta figurines rise steadily through the Vth and IVth centuries BC. This pattern of dedication is not followed by any other sanctuary in the region.

Discussion of the identification and classification of the figurines (fairly evenly spread between types) as well as comparative quantified analysis with votive finds from other sites in the region forms the core of the argument for Classical Corinthian shifts in votive practices in the fifth century.

Quantified discussion of sanctuary and funerary votives provides insights into Corinthian social structure and votive symbolism.

Archaic East-Greek Terracottas in South Sicily:

Korai holding a Dove from the Thesmophorion of Bitalemi (Gela)

Silvia Martina BERTESAGO

Ms Silvia Martina BERTESAGO (Venice)

Università Ca’ Foscari, Dipartimento di Scienze dell’Antichità e del Vicino Oriente Antico, Palazzo Bernardo Favero, S. Polo 1977, I-30125 Venice, ITALY.

<silvia.bertesago@libero.it>

The richness of the discoveries in the Thesmophorion of Bitalemi, an extra-urban sanctuary near Gela, offers the possibility for a deep study of the main aspects concerning the distribution of archaic East-Greek terracottas in sicilian colonies. Here, according to the so far published data, ionic figurines seem to meet the favour of customers and to find one of the places of largest diffusion. The abundance and variety of ionic types, the good state of conservation of many statuettes and the fact that they come from a well dated context, which is also certainly defined from the religious point of view, contribute in a significant way to rendering Bitalemi an excellent subject of study; this can help us to specify the frame of East-greek imports in South Sicily (for this aspect see Mrs M. Albertocchi’s paper), bringing moreover new important elements.

My paper will concern the analysis of the korai with dove, one of the most frequently attested subjects on the island and one of the most representative of East-greek terracottas, and will mainly deal with the following aspects: the presentation of the typological classification of the korai made on the base of production technology; the discussion on dating the single statuettes according to the sanctuary’s stratigraphic sequence, which will help to precise the time range of the ionic workshops’ exports to Gela and to a revision of the chronology of the various types of korai with dove; the study of the iconography related to the specific religious context of Bitalemi and to the ritual occasion of the dedication.

Indicatori cronologici e cultuali tra V e IV sec. a.C.

nella coroplastica del santuario di Demetra e Kore di Iasos

Fede BERTI, Antonella ROMUALDI

Prof. Fede BERTI (Ferrara)

Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Via XX Settembre 122, I-44100 Ferrara, ITALY.

<fberti@arti.beniculturali.it>

Mrs Antonella ROMUALDI (Firenze)

Polo museale fiorentino, Via della Ninna, Firenze, ITALY.

Le autrici prendono in esame il folto gruppo delle statuette rinvenute nella stipe del c.d. santuario di Demetra e Kore di Iasos (Caria) per puntualizzarne la molteplice composizione iconografica e tematica e per presentarne i cambiamenti e le variabili tra V e IV sec. a.C. Attraverso l'analisi dei votivi, la ricerca si prefigge lo scopo di verificare la funzione dell'edificio, da tempo ritenuto luogo di culto di Demetra e Kore.

Terracotta Figurines of the Roman Period from Novae (Moesia Inferior)

Andrzej B. BIERNACKI

Dr Andrzej B. BIERNACKI (Poznan)

Interdisciplinary Archaeological Expedition “Novae”, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Str. Sw Marcin 78, PL-61809 Poznan, POLAND.

<abbiernacki@yahoo.com>; <biernack@amu.edu.pl>

The Roman military camp of Novae (Svishtov, Northern Bulgaria) was among the largest settlements at the border in the region of the Lower Danube, of great importance for the Roman Empire’s political and economic activity. Regular excavation at Novae was started in 1960 by the Warsaw University (Poland). The Archaeological Expedition of the Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznañ (Poland) began the extensive interdisciplinary archaeological exploration of the Roman legionary camp of Novae in 1970. The long-term research has yielded abundant archaeological material. Among this material, terracotta represents only a small portion. Most of the terracotta fragments were uncovered on the levels of the 3rd–4th centuries. This fact could be explained by an increase in the production of terracotta in the ancient ceramic workshops discovered near the present town of Butovo (Northern Bulgaria). The terracotta items were made by hand in clay moulds. Prevalent among them are figures of Venus, foals, kids, busts of soldiers, etc. Since the local ceramic production was targeted at the Roman legionaries, the craftsmen of Butovo upheld the Asia Minor tradition in ceramic production. The local terracotta items represented the gods of the Greek-Roman pantheon. Among of them are Zeus, Hermes, Dionysus, etc. The statues were used for the purposes of private and public worship in the camp. Another category of terracotta represented various species of animals, e.g. horses and roosters. Due to the increasing danger of war, the representations of a horseman and a soldier with the facial features of a nomad became popular in the Lower Danube region in the mid-3rd–4th centuries. The horseman is represented with a varying degree of realism. The iconography is well known from the widespread relief of the Hero (a Thracian horseman). Beside the general features of the evolution of terra-cotta production in the Eastern Mediterranean, its production on the border of the Roman Empire also had its specific character.

The Polychromy of Hellenistic Terracotta Figurines

Clarissa BLUME

Ms Clarissa BLUME (Freiburg)

Archäologisches Institut der Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Fahnenbergplatz,

D-79085 Freiburg i. Br., GERMANY.

<clarissa.blume@web.de>

Research into ancient polychromy is not only of importance for sculpture, but also for minor art, such as terracotta figurines. In fact, good conservation seems to be an important pillar in that field of research.

It is known that Hellenistic terracotta figurines are incomplete when not coloured. In fact, the polychromy of Hellenistic terracotta figurines is often well-preserved. Nonetheless, the coat of colours has never been analysed concerning the information one can gain from it.

The results to be presented are based on the study of more than a hundred figurines from burial contexts and having their origin in Myrina, Tanagra and Canosa. After the general analysis of which colours were applied, what elements were coloured which way, and what elements were newly added with the colouring, further questions arose concerning the information produced by the polychrome coat.

The questions lead to three phenomena which might be of significance for our understanding of terracotta figurines from burial contexts. The first phenomenon is the garment worn by female figurines. Comparanda make it clear that the, sometimes elaborate, chitons and himations, as well as the jewellery, cannot be part of the dress of servants, but only of their mistresses. The second phenomenon is that most figurines are depicted with light skin. The skin colour indicates that figurines only represent children and adolescents, perhaps also adult women. In fact, adult men do rarely appear among figurines. Exceptions are, for instance, pedagogues accompanying a child or theatrical masks with bearded male faces. Indeed, their faces are coloured with a darker hue.

The third phenomenon shows up among the garments worn by young children. Children are often shown with the garments of ephebes or adult men. This garment can be a chlamys or a long mantle. Moreover, one well-preserved figurine of a boy is even depicted with military sandals, meant to be worn by adults. This adult-like representation of children among the figurines might be intended to reflect on the years and stages of life which the deceased child would miss because of early death. This suggestion is corroborated by the fact that terracotta figurines added to graves seem to be chosen according to the gender of the deceased, and maybe also according to the age.

As a result the study leads to the proposal that figurines in burial contexts might only represent children and adolescents, maybe also adult women. Furthermore, they are depicted as a particular social group and they might intend to give further messages to the observers which are readable from the way of their representation.

Figurines of Children from the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore at Corinth

Olympia BOBOU

Ms Olympia BOBOU (Oxford)

Keble College of the University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PG, GREAT BRITAIN

<olympia.bobou@keble.ox.ac.uk>; <olympia.bobou@gmail.com>

One of the most important sanctuaries of Corinth was that of Demeter and Kore. Among the finds was a significantly large number of statuettes of children dating from the late classical to the Hellenistic period. Unlike girls, boys are not associated with the rites of Demeter and Kore, the archetypal mother-daughter pair, and the presence of a large number of terracotta statuettes depicting boys has been seen as extraordinary and astonishing. In order to explain them, the figurines of boys have been connected with a change in ritual practices in the sanctuary, and the participation of boys in the rites of the goddesses.

However, when looking at the finds from other sanctuaries of Demeter and Kore we see that figurines of boys were commonly dedicated and are always found in larger numbers than the figurines of girls. Moreover, in sanctuaries of different deities where both statuettes of girls and boys have been found, we see the same discrepancy and difference in the ratio of figurines of boys and girls. This shows that we cannot talk of changes in ritual practice, but we must seek a different explanation for their presence.

Figurines of children are closely associated with the practices of the community, but these practices can be considered ritual in the broad sense of the world. Instead of reflecting the greater participation of boys in the life of the sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, they reflect a dedicatory pattern observed in sanctuaries of the Greek mainland and Asia Minor from the fourth century BC onwards, a pattern that highlights changes in the perception and importance of children, and families, within their communities.

The Tomb 404 from the North-Eastern Necropolis of Thebes (Boeotia)

Margherita BONANNO ARAVANTINOS

Prof. Margherita BONANNO ARAVANTINOS (Rome)

Dipartimento di Beni Culturali, Musica e Spettacolo-Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia-Università degli studi di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Via Columbia 1, I-00133 Rome, ITALY

<margherita.bonanno@uniroma2.it>; <giuly1479@tiscali.it>

The sistematic excavations carried out between 2000 and 2001 by the IX Archaeological Ephorate for Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities of Boeotia in a sector placed about 2 km north-east from the centre of Thebes, digged out the most vast cemeterial area of the ancient city, known until today.

The excavation campaign began in consequence of the construction of a big railway tunnel by the Greek national railways company (O.∑.E.). 843 tombs of different typologies (pit-graves, cists, tile-graves, sarchopages, larnakes etc.) and several funerary enclosures, that certify the prolongued use of this extra-moenia sector from the late geometric to the roman-ellenistic age, have been found within an area of about 3000 sm. Until the IInd century B.C. a rather extended and widespread funerary use of the area has been recorded, with frequent superimpositions and reutilizations.

The burials seem to become scattered beginning from the Ist century A.C., and this phenomenon becomes more marked over the following century. The investigations revealed rare burials dating back to the Ist century A.C., when the area was abbandoned.

The overall analysis of the necropolis, who’s study is still in progress, the examination of the burial typologies present and of their alternation during the several phases of use of the necropolis and especially the study of the rich funerary complements, which reveal a large number of terracotta figurines, supply significant informations that can increase our knowledge of the autonomy and vitality of coroplastic and pottery workshops in Thebes, of the networking with other production centres, of the funerary rites, of the economy and finally of the ancient city’s every day life.

The aim of this paper is to present certain tombs of classical age, and in particular tomb 404, a cist burial found in the southern sector of the north-eastern necropolis.

The funerary offerings, layed in the interior and barely on the outside and at top of the tomb, includes two big calyx craters of the red figure technique and an interesting group of terracotta figurines, most of them unpublished, more or less common to the beotian coroplastic. The subjects of the terracotta figurines are mainly feminine, exemplified by some replicas of enthroned jointed dolls, dancers and mantle dancers, standing female figures and peplophoroi holding various objects, as well as an Aphrodite-type. There is only one masculine figure, probably an Apollo. All the figurines are of high quality and cast in some very fresh moulds. Furthermore, the complex is stylistically so homogeneous to seem as the product of a single workshop. The iconographic types can make use of the whole of the data collected and of the accurate chronological chart (scheme) suggested by the association of the pottery found. This allows a more complete overall analysis than that given by the sole examination of the single pieces and moreover permits the explanation of the role of local workshops and of any grade of dependence on archetypes and external models.

A New Terracotta Figurine of Ionian Kouros Type

from the Temple of “Athena” at Karthaia, Keos Island

Leonidas C. BOURNIAS

Mr Leonidas C. BOURNIAS (Athens)

10 Anagnostopoulou Str., GR-10673 Athens Greece

<Le0@in.gr>

In 2005, in the course of limited restoration works that were carried out on the pronaos floor of the so called temple of Athena at Karthaia on Keos, we came upon an interesting chance find. At the fringe between the pronaos floor and the stylobate foundation, lay buried among chips of gneiss and limestone, a terracotta figurine of a draped kouros. It belongs to the standard Ionian type that is regularly encountered in the north of Greece, the northern Aegean, Asia Minor and the West but quite rare in the Cyclades and the mainland.

The purpose of this study is twofold: first to place the new find firmly in context examining aspects of its typology and date but also to discuss some thoughts about the distribution and meaning of the type, especially after the publication of a similar recent find from Despotiko, Antiparos. Second, to investigate the clues that might help us gain insight on some questions about the temple itself, its proposed date in the late 6th c. B.C. and the course of its construction.

The Archaic Terracotta Figurines from the ‘Taxiarchis’/Didyma

Jan BREDER

Mr Jan BREDER (Bonn)

Akademisches Kunstmuseum Bonn, Am Hofgarten 21, D-53113 Bonn, GERMANY.

<janbreder@gmx.de>

Das Orakel-Heiligtum von Didyma ist das extraurbane Hauptheiligtum der antiken Metropole Milet. Archaische Terrakotten aus Didyma sind nach der Zerstörung der Funde der alten Grabungen (1918) kaum bekannt und nicht publiziert. Nachdem schon in den letzten Jahren auf dem Zeytin Tepe bei Milet außergewöhnlich reiche archaische Funde gemacht wurden, konnte auch in Didyma auf dem ‚Taxiarchis-Hügel’ ein ungestörter Heiligtumsbefund aufgedeckt werden. Die Weihgaben reichen chronologisch vom frühen 7. Jh. v. Chr. bis ins frühe 5. Jh. v. Chr. und liefern neben der Zerstörung des archaischen Apollontempels erstmals einen archäologischen Beleg für die historisch überlieferte Perserzerstörung von 494 v. Chr.

Aus topographischen Gründen gehörte der Kultplatz auf dem ‚Taxiarchis’ wohl nicht direkt zum Apollonheiligtum. Wahrscheinlich ist dieser Fundkomplex mit einem der epigraphisch bezeugten Heiligtümer zu verbinden, die bislang nicht lokalisiert werden konnten.

In diesem Beitrag soll zunächst das teils außergewöhnliche Repertoire an archaischen Terrakotten vorgestellt werden.

Unter den Terrakotten vom „Taxiarchis“ finden sich zahlreiche Figurentypen, die im ostionischen Kulturraum bekannt sind, aber auch solche, die als exzeptionell oder zumindest äußerst selten gelten können. Sie geben mit Aufschluß über den Charakter des HeiligtuMs Ihre Auffindung im stratigraphischen Befund kann Aussagen über Zeit und Verwendung der Terrakotten ermöglichen und neue Perspektiven in der Erforschung der Kulttopographie von Didyma eröffnen.

Les figurines en terre cuite d’Apollonia de Cyrénaïque

Jean-Sylvain CAILLOU

Dr Jean-Sylvain CAILLOU (Le Kram)

31, Rue Habib Thameur, TN-2015 Le Kram, TUNISIA

<jscaillou@wanadoo.tn>

Les fouilles menées depuis 2002 à l’extrémité occidentale de l’acropole d’Apollonia de Cyrénaïque ont permis de découvrir près de 500 fragments de figurines en terre cuite à proximité d’un important sanctuaire. Parmi ces figurines, datées entre le Ve et le IIIe av. J.-C., figurent essentiellement des divinités féminines assises et debout avec des attributs locaux (silphion, etc.). On note aussi un grand nombre de temple-boys produits localement mais quasiment inédits en Cyrénaïque jusqu’alors. Le reste des figurines comprend de nombreux types (Vénus, Cybèle, Apollon, pseudo-poupée, Tanagréennes, etc.) mais chacun en peu d’exemplaires.

L’étude de ce lot et de son contexte archéologique permet d’améliorer sensiblement nos connaissances sur les productions et les importations de figurines en Cyrénaïque. Elle permet aussi de préciser la fonction et l’identité de certains types qui, bien que déjà trouvés en abondance à Apollonia et à Cyrène, restent discutés. Enfin, comme d’autres domaines, la coroplathie souligne l’importance des rapports entre la Cyrénaïque et le reste du monde grec et oriental.

A Contribution to the Study of the Coroplastic Workshops of Euboea, Greece

Maria CHIDIROGLOU

Ms Maria CHIDIROGLOU (Athens)

Department of Archaeological Sites, Monuments and Research,

Hellenic Ministry of Culture, Athens, GREECE.

<mchidiroglou@yahoo.gr>.

Among the terracottas stored and exhibited in the National Archaeological Museum at Athens, a group of Late Classical to Hellenistic clay figurines comes from Chalkis, Eretria and Karystos, the three main ancient city-states of the island of Euboea, Greece. These contain standing and seated female and male figures, animals, actors and acrobats, comic masks and figures of deities and were found in the early 20th century excavations at these city sites.

This paper will attempt a first presentation of some unknown pieces and a re-evaluation of others, briefly mentioned in previous bibliography. These will be compared to similar finds from the salvage excavations conducted by the 11th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities especially in Southern Euboean ancient cemetery sites, during the last decade.

As a result of this research, main trade lines and mould transfer dynamics between the Aegean, Mainland Greek sites and Euboea will be discussed, as well as local original Euboean clay figurine creations. Finally, due attention will be paid to Euboean inter city-state and social phenomena, such as the spread of a particular worship or of theatrical activities on this island, also attested by inscriptional testimonies.

Aspects cultuels de l’utilisation des vases plastiques de la Grèce de l’Est en Sicile, Grande Grèce et Etrurie: le cas de la tête d’Acheloos

Maria Raffaella CIUCCARELLI

Dr Maria Raffaella CIUCCARELLI (Pisa)

Dipartimento di Scienze storiche del Mondo Antico – Università di Pisa, via L. Galvani, 1

(angolo via S. Maria), III piano, I-56126 Pisa, ITALY.

<rciuccarelli@libero.it>

Les vases plastiques de la Grèce de l’Est étaient recherchés non seulement pour l’huile parfumée qu’ils contenaient, mais aussi, selon toute probabilité, pour leur signification symbolique, soit pour les dédier dans un sanctuaire, soit pour les déposer dans une tombe.

En Étrurie (Cerveteri, Populonia) un certain nombre de vases plastiques représentant une tête d’Acheloos (sujet peu fréquent) sont déposés dans la première moitié du VIe s. dans des sépultures comme offrande funéraire ; le même sujet apparaît à partir du VIe siècle dans le décor ou la forme de plusieurs autres monuments funéraires à Tarquinia, Chiusi, Populonia. Cela suggère l’hypothèse que les vases plastiques à tête d’Acheloos étaient en Étrurie chargés d’une signification religieuse ou cultuelle précise. La personnalité d’Acheloos y était étroitement liée au monde chtonien et de l’au-delà, et constituait bien plus qu’un symbole de la nécessité de contrôler les eaux courantes.

Cette conception trouve peut-être son origine dans le milieu religieux de quelques colonies grecques d’Italie, en particulier Sélinonte (deux vases à tête d’Acheloos proviennent du sanctuaire de la Malophoros) et Locres Epizephiriennes (du sanctuaire de Perséphone à la Mannella proviennent peut-être deux vases plastiques et à Grotta Caruso est attesté le culte d’Acheloos et des Nymphes, avec des caractéristiques chthoniennes). La diffusion de cette interprétation d’Acheloos dans quelques colonies d’Italie est confirmée par la fréquence du dépôt de vases plastiques à tête du dieu dans des tombes de la première moitié du VIe s., comme à Syracuse (un exemplaire) et à Tarente (deux exemplaires).

Cette interprétation est réélaborée dans le sud de l’Italie, certainement dans le cadre du culte de Démeter et Perséphone, des Nymphes (étroitement liées à Acheloos et aux Deux Déesses), et peut-être d’Aphrodite Ourania. Elle arrive en Étrurie dans la première moitié du VIe s. par les voies commerciales de la mer tyrrhénienne : son adoption dans les centres étrusques méridionaux est manifestée par l’achat des vases plastiques et leur utilisation dans le mobilier funéraire.

L’intermédiaire pour l’Étrurie peut être représenté par un sanctuaire avec des caractéristiques de lieu d’échange comme Gravisca ; dès la seconde moitié du VIe s. cette interprétation d’Acheloos arrive même dans les autres sanctuaires importants d’Étrurie méridionale, comme Pyrgi et Veio. Ici s’ajoute selon toute probabilité une élaboration supplémentaire, qui s’enracine de plus en plus dans le milieu funéraire : elle est à l’origine d’une série de monuments funéraires de fabrication locale comportant la représentation figurée d’Acheloos (antéfixes de Populonia; cippes de Chiusi ; peinture de la Tomba dei Tori à Tarquinia ; lacunari en bronze ; sarcophages et urnes etc.).

Archaic Terracottas from the Louis Robert Excavations at Amyzon

Murat ÇEKİLMEZ

Mr Murat ÇEKİLMEZ (Aydın)

Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi, Fen–Edebiyat Fakültesi, Arkeoloji Bölümü, Aytepe,

TR-09010 Aydın, TURKEY.

<mcekilmez@adu.edu.tr>; <ephesus_21@hotmail.com> ; <mcekilmez@gmail.com>

Amyzon, a northwestern Carian site, situates on Asartepe, a hilltopsite between the villages Mersin Beleni, Gaffarlar and Akmescit in Koçarlı, at the province of Aydın. A temple dedicated to Apollon – Artemis, a theater, a cistern or storage building as well as some fortification buildings are the best known superstructures of this Greek polis.

The site has been researched since 19th century; during 1949 – 50 J. and L. Robert excavated at the site. L. Robert has published the temple excavations at “Le sanctuaire d’Artemis a Amyzon’’ (1953, C.R.I.A.) and consequently he reported his excavations, coins and inscriptions in a monography, entitled “Fouilles d’Amyzon en Carie’’ (Paris 1983). Among others Robert has also found and published terracottas of Archaic period that did not being presented in detail yet.

The major aim of this communication is to present the terracottas from the excavations of J. and L. Robert at Amyzon. Three sitted woman figurines (two with polos), a female figurine in form of a bottle, an aryballos in bird form, a Bes and an architectural frize block with a kentauros are the most spectacular terracottas from Amyzon. These terracottas are similar in design and shape to those known from Miletus, Erythrai, Iasos, Clazomenai, Assos as well as other Carian sites.

Since Miletus and Amyzon situates at the same geographical line, the similarities between these two sites are enourmous. Two sanctuaries at Miletus at the 6th cent. B.C., Artemis Khitone (Kalabaktepe) and Aphrodite (Zeytintepe), provide similar materials to that of at Amyzon that makes someone to think that they were produced at the same workshops. In this case it could be assumed that these terracottas from Amyzon were produced at Miletus.

The kentauros frize from Amyzon should be belonging to the archaic phase of the Artemis temple.

All of these terracottas should be dated to 560 – 520 B.C.

Translated by Ergün Laflı

The Archaic Terracotta Figurines and Protomes

from Panaztepe at Northern Izmir

Nazlı ÇINARDALI-KARAASLAN

Dr Nazlı ÇINARDALI-KARAASLAN (Ankara)

Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakültesi, Arkeoloji Bölümü, Beytepe,

TR-06800 Ankara, TURKEY.

<nazlic@hacettepe.edu.tr>

The excavations carried out at Panaztepe that is located north of Izmir, 13 km west of Menemen, considerably increased the knowledge about the prehistoric cultures of the region. Despite losing of its importance, Panaztepe itself is inhabited not only in the 2nd millenium B.C. but also in the 1st millenium B.C., as indicated by the evidence from the investigations. Although the monumental buildings dated to Archaic Period are striking architectural features which are brought to light during the fieldwork conducted at the so called Acropolis. The votive figurines and protomes that are uncovered in a building context have a significant role for not only the dating of the building but also the definition of the function of itself. On the other hand the function of the votive figurines themselves should also be reconsidered. In stylistic view, Panaztepe finds that are dated to end of 6th century – 5th century BC closely resemble the contemporary finds from Lindos, Halicarnasus, Miletus, Iasos, Myrina etc. Moreover it becomes significant evidence when it’s considered such votive figurines’ presence at Panaztepe, located so far in the Aiolis region; that produced by Ion style workshops indicates about the distribution of the products widely in the region and about the maritime trade that possibly Panaztepe also involved in. Besides these terracottas clearly indicate the continuity in the view of chronological sequence that they’re belonging to.

Panaztepe terracottas are produced by the moulding technique. The finds can be organised in two subgroups: one is female protomes that are polychrome painted, while the latter is the votive figurines. These can also be considered in two groups. While the first type represented with the female figurine wearing himation, sitting and holding child on her arms cons the latter is standing female figurine wears himation and carries her child over her shoulder. There is no any precise evidence mends us to match these votive figurines with divinities in particular. However it should be taken these figurines into account as represented the ordinary “family mothers”. Perhaps they can be seen as offerings that symbolises the fertility presented to the divinities as an expression of thanksgiving. It’s clear that such a tradition have found itself a place in Ion world which was adapted from Cyprus. However there’s no doubt in the matching of the Panaztepe protomes with the divinities.

Bendis —Was bedeuten die Terrakotten der Thrakerin in Kleinasien?

Maria DEOUDI

Dr Maria DEOUDI (Saarbrücken)

Archäologisches Institut der Universität des Saarlandes, Am Stadtwald,

D-66123 Saarbrücken, GERMANY.

<m.deoudi@mx.uni-saarland.de>

Bendis ist vor allem bekannt durch antike griechische Autoren. Sie galt ihnen als thrakische Göttin, nannten sie Basileia und sahen sie aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach als große Muttergöttin.

Ebenso wie früheste schriftliche Überlieferung, stammen auch die ersten bildlichen Darstellungen über Bendis, die im anikonischen Thrakien beheimatet war, ausschließlich aus dem griechischen Kulturraum.

In dem von Griechenland und dabei vor allem im von Athen geprägten Bild erscheint die Göttin seit archaischer Zeit immer in phrygischer Mütze, mit Lammfell, hohen Stiefeln, als Attribut hat sie die Doppellanze, oft begleitet sie ein Hund oder ein Reh. Das Moment der Jagd davon weitergehend und auch das des Krieges dominieren in der Darstellung. Somit scheint das Bild der Bendis eine Interpretatio Graeca zu sein, die die antiken griechischen, Vorstellungen über das Volk im Norden widerspiegelt. Dieses Bild, das geprägt ist und durch die gleich bleibende attributiven Ausstattung wie auch die festen habituellen Merkmale ermöglichten in der Antike, wie auch heute, die Identifizierung der Göttin auf ganz unterschiedlichen Medien.

Sie belegen eine geographische Verbreitung die von Unteritalien über Griechenland bis an die Städte Kleinasiens wie Pergamon und Bithynien reicht. Die Frage ist, wurde sie in Athen und davon aufgehend auch in Kleinasien als Göttin der Jagd und Vertreterin ihres Volkes verehrt, wie man immer noch behauptet?

Zumindest für die Kolonien Kleinasien eröffnet sich eine andere Interpretation. Die schriftlichen Quellen belegen einerseits ihre die Bekanntheit und die exponierte Stellung der Thrakerin im Pantheon einzelner Städte Kleinasiens. Dennoch gelten die Abbildungen der Göttin als unspezifische Weihgaben, die weder mit einer Gruppe noch mit einem religiösem Bereich zusammenhängen. Tatsächlich entschlüsseln sich die kultischen Aufgaben sich als „Bild“ hinter dem offiziellen und vor allem chiffreartigen Bild.

Das ursprüngliche Wesen und das propagierte Bild treffen sich vor allem in den von öffentlicher Hand oder für offizielle Anlässe geschaffenen Bilder. Das Dekret aus Piräus (Kopenhagen), das Relief aus Athen (London), aber auch das Steinrelief aus Paros (nur in einer Umzeichnung erhalten) stehen stellvertretend dafür, wie sich verschiedene Aussageebenen verbinden. Bendis ist dargestellt als Göttin der Jagd wird aber verehrt als Göttin der Fertilität. Bendis war eine Göttin für Frauen und weibliche Fruchtbarkeit. Dieser Kult zu Ehren der Bendis Basileia, auf den sich auch in eine Stelle bei Herodot (IV 33) beziehen lässt, zeigt ein anderes Gesicht der Göttin, mag auch ihre Verbreitung in Griechenland, Kleinasien helfen zu erklären und zeigt neue Wege die kulturell geprägten und die ursprünglichen Gesichter einer Göttin von einander zu trennen.

Terracotta Rider Plaques from Neonteichus, Aiolis

Emel DEREBOYLU

Ms Emel DEREBOYLU (Izmir)

Ege Üniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakültesi, Arkeoloji Bölümü, Bornova, TR-35100 Izmir, TURKEY.

<e_dereboylu@hotmail.com>; <emeldereboylu@yahoo.com>

During the field surveys undertaken at Neonteichus in Aiolis in 1991 and 2006, several terracottas were collected. These fragmentary samples, today stored in the Archaeological Collection of the Ege University in Izmir, were left by antique looters of the site. One of the major group is the one with a rider representation.

These plaques are squared or rectangular and they were frequently distorted during the firing. Their back sides are made without much care. These moulded plaques were framed with a thin border.

Two columns bounded the main scene in the middle, thus an expression was given to the central figure. These columns usually with Ionian, Aiolian or composite capitals should be representing the façade of a temple or a sanctuary. The main scene on the plaques is horse riders.

Horses and riders can be represented either to the left or to the right position. In some of plaques reliefs are not precise enough due to the moulding. In these examples it seems that riders were clothed with a short tunic. Just to express that horse was in move the artist carved the khimation of the rider in a curly position. With one exception, body and head of the rider are always shown in profile. In one exceptional sample the body is represented in profile, but the head in frontal position. As filling ornaments wreaths were applied. These plain wreaths are variable and carelessly done.

These riders were represented without any weapon, which brings us to think that they were represented after the death. Serpents curled to the columns also support this idea. Serpents and horses were representing the subterranean and celestial world. For this matter, these objects can be grave goods.

Translated by Ergün Laflı

L’iconographie d’Apollon à Claros

d’après les statuettes en terre cuite (fin VIe – IIe s. av. J.-C.)

Évolution stylistique et valeur cultuelle des images offertes au dieu

Martine DEWAILLY, Nuran ŞAHİN

Dr Martine DEWAILLY (Rome)

Ecole Française de Rome, Piazza Navona, 62, I-00186 Rome, ITALY.

<martine.dewailly@efrome.it>

Prof. Nuran ŞAHİN (Izmir)

Ege Üniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakültesi, Arkeoloji Bölümü, Bornova, TR-35100 Izmir, TURKEY.

<nuran.sahin@ege.edu.tr>

L’enquête archéologique de la mission française dirigée par Juliette de la Genière de 1988 à 1997 dans le sanctuaire de Claros s’est concentrée sur la recherche des témoignages architecturaux et cultuels les plus anciens, antérieurs aux vestiges hellénistiques et impériaux mis au jour par Louis Robert. La fouille a concerné essentiellement les aires consacrées à Apollon et à Artémis, comprises entre leurs temples et autels respectifs du IIe s. av. J.-C., et un segment de la voie sacrée située au sud de celles-ci.

L’exploration des strates archaïques, classiques et hellénistiques a livré une grande quantité de statuettes votives en terre cuite dispersées ou groupées et disposées en couches à l’intérieur de remblais successifs qui forment ainsi des contextes clos, bien datés ; la majorité des offrandes votives en terre cuite a été trouvée autour de l’autel de la divinité à laquelle elles avaient été dédiées. Cette intervention présente les trouvailles faites jusqu’en 1997.

Plus d’un quart de ces statuettes (environ 350) figurent Apollon, debout, tenant un barbiton, une lyre ou une cithare. Cette image spécifique d’Apollon est présente du dernier quart du VIe au IIe s. av. J.-C. : le sanctuaire de Claros offre donc quatre siècles de témoignages coroplastiques de la représentation du dieu ; aucun autre sanctuaire d’Apollon de Grèce ou plus généralement de Méditerranée orientale et occidentale n’a restitué une telle continuité.

Le but de cette intervention est de tenter de comprendre quel est et comment évolue le rapport, pendant ces quatre siècles, entre ces images en terre cuite, le culte et la fonction oraculaire du dieu.

Cette recherche prendra en compte l’évolution des types coroplastiques et leur répartition chronologique, l’encadrement stylistique et les modèles iconographiques, l’étude de l’attribut du dieu et son rôle dans l'image d’Apollon à Claros.

Votive Terracottas from the Athena Temple at Pedasa, Caria

Adnan DİLER

Prof. Adnan DİLER (Muğla)

Muğla Üniversitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi, Arkeoloji Bölümü, Kötekli, TR-48000, Muğla, TURKEY.

<adnandiler@yahoo.com>

Pedasa lies in the hills of Caria above Halikarnassus and it was one of the eight Lelegian towns mentioned by Strabo (611; ef. Plin., HN 5.107). The Pedasans offered strong resistance to the Persian Harpagos ca. 544 B.C. (Hdt. 1.175), and shortly after 499 another Persian army was ambushed and destroyed by the Carians near Pedasa (Hdt. 5.121). In the Delian Confederacy Pedasa paid two talents at first, reduced to one talent in the second period, but nothing thereafter. The town was incorporated by Mausolos into his enlarged Halikarnassus (Strab. l.c.), but continued to be occupied as a garrison post in Hellenistic times. It was perhaps occupied for a time by Philip V during his Carian campaign (Polyb. 18.44).

The site is assured by Herodotos' description of it as above Halikarnassos, and by the survival of the name at the neighboring village of Bitez.

Pedasa, one of the most important Lelegian settlements of the Bodrum Peninsula, is a city that was said by ancient sources to be the only city to have a temple among all the other Lelegian settlements.

In a hollow below the site on the southwest are remains which seem to be those of the Temple of Athena, as implied by an inscription found close by (CIG 2660). According to the interesting story retold by Herodotus in his first book about the city of Pedasa: the goddes Athena would grow a beard whenever an evil thing was going to happen to them or to their neighbors. This event took place three times throughout the city’s history. Outside the city walls of Pedasa Acropolis, the temple was used during the late Archaic and the Early Classical Period and reached its final design during the reign of Mausollos.

The only structure that can be named as the temple Herodotos calls the Athena Temple today is the remnant to 200 m southwest of the acropolis. The wall technique with its neatly cut bosage cuttings with its drafted corner blocks can be compared with the city wall of Halicarnassus, built during the earlier periods of the reign of Mausollos .

The monolithic column standing before the western wall of the building documents the significance of the structure.

The bothros opened by illegal excavators and investigated by us, supports the claim that the structure was a temple. Some terracotta figurines found here, date back to the late Archaic early Classical periods. However, we cannot reach a decision as to the real aim of its structure without carrying out an excavation. For the time being, the only thing we can say is that the bothros could be related to the structure that could be counted as a temple in Pedasa that might be dating back to times much more earlier than the times of Mausollos.

Terracotta Figurines Representing and Concerning Female Divinity

at the Sanctuary of Apollo at Claros, Ionia

Elçin DOĞAN

Ms Elçin DOĞAN (Izmir)

Ege Üniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakültesi, Arkeoloji Bölümü, Bornova, TR-35100 Izmir, TURKEY.

<doganelcin@hotmail.com>

Terracotta figurines concerning female divinity and found at the sanctuary of Apollo Clarios, indicate various cults at this site. One of the most popular female divinity is Aphrodite. Among the Aphrodite figurines, one of the most significant one is her representation with Eros. Furthermore she is being represented sitting on a dolphin, standing or sitting alone.

A further major group consist into Artemis Claria dedications. Among them, two Artemis Kourotrophoi types are observed. Another one which is carrying an animal in her right hand may be assumed as Artemis, in the frame of her cult of Potnia Theron. Draped female figurines found at the sector of Artemis at Claros will be examined in that group.

A further Kourotrophos Leto holding two children (Apollo and Artemis), not recovered from the 2001-2006 excavations, is important because of its evidence for the existence of this cult at the sanctuary.

A fourth group, Dionysiac, was recovered from a bothros. Hundreds of chous and Early Hellenistic temple boy figurines were recovered here with kourutophos figurines that might represent Kourotrophos Nymphe Nysa.

A seated Kybele Figurine with lion is also available in the group of female figurines. A Kybele cult is known by a cave sanctuary at “Demirli Mağara”, which is 1 km far from Claros. Around this cave, a relief representing standing Kybele had been found.

Translated by Ergün Laflı

Überlegungen zur Attributhäufung bei Götterdarstellungen

in der griechisch-römischen Koroplastik

Christina DREES

Ms Christina DREES (Münster)

Institut für Klassische Archäologie und Frühchristliche Archäologie/Archäologisches

Museum der Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Domplatz 20-22,

D–48143 Münster, GERMANY.

<cdrees@uni-muenster.de>; <CD77737@aol.com>

Gegenstand meines Vortrages sind einige ausgewählte Terrakotten, die sich unter dem gemeinsamen Merkmal der sogenannten Attributhäufung vereinen lassen. Es handelt sich um Götterdarstellungen, die typologisch und ikonographisch zunächst einmal griechisch-römischen Vorbildern folgen. Neben den ihnen eigenen Beizeichen weisen sie in unterschiedlichem Maße allerdings auch Attribute auf, die im griechisch-römischen Bereich eigentlich anderen Gottheiten zukommen.

Attribute werden hier als Bildzeichen, als Elemente im Zeichensystem der antiken Bildsprache verstanden. Ganz allgemein können sie bestimmte Qualitäten, d. h. Fähigkeiten und Eigenschaften, verdeutlichen. Im Bereich der griechisch-römischen Götterikonographie kennzeichnen bestimmte Beizeichen nach einem relativ festgelegten System in der Regel einzelne charakteristische Wesensaspekte einer Gottheit.

Was es nun bedeutet, wenn unter Terrakotten aus hellenistisch-römischer Zeit Götterdarstellungen mit nach diesem Muster ungewöhnlichen Attributen vorkommen, soll anhand einiger exemplarischer Stücke erläutert werden. Zur Diskussion stehen vor allem ihre Typologie und Ikonographie sowie die Frage nach ihrer Benennung und Datierung, aber auch die mögliche Funktion und Verwendung.

Ein besonderes Augenmerk liegt auf dem beobachteten Umgang mit den einzelnen Attributen und auf der kontextuellen Einordnung der Stücke, insbesondere in bezug auf die dargestellten bzw. mit der Darstellung gemeinten Gottheiten.

Des terres cuites pour Déméter.

Observations sur la petite plastique du sanctuaire de Vamiès

(Itanos, Crète orientale).

Alain DUPLOUY, Alessia ZAMBON

Dr Alain DUPLOUY (Paris)

Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne – UMR 7041 « Archéologies et Sciences de l’Antiquité », c/o Institut d'art et d'archéologie, 3 rue Michelet, F-75006 Paris, FRANCE.

<alain.duplouy@free.fr>

Ms Alessia ZAMBON (Paris)

Institut National d'Histoire de l'Art, 2 rue Vivienne, F-75002 Paris, France.

<alessia.zambon@inha.fr>

La prospection archéologique menée par l’École française d’Athènes à Itanos depuis plusieurs années a permis de mettre en évidence l’organisation d’une portion du territoire de cette cité de Crète orientale. À côté des vestiges d’habitat, les recherches menées sur le terrain ont également révélé un petit sanctuaire péri-urbain, dont le nettoyage a livré une collection de terres cuites votives s’étendant de l’époque archaïque à la période hellénistique. Préalablement à la publication finale de la prospection, il s’agit de ici présenter le matériel coroplastique dans son contexte de découverte et de proposer une identification de la divinité vénérée.

Terracotta Figurines from Adramytteion/Örentepe in Mysia

Figen ERDOĞDU

Dr Figen ERDOĞDU (Balıkesir)

Balıkesir Üniversitesi, Ayvalık Meslek Yüksek Okulu, Balıkesir Yolu Üzeri,

Ayvalık, Balıkesir, TURKEY.

<ffurtuna@hotmail.com>

The first excavations at Adramytteion, today Ören in the Burhaniye township of Balıkesir, begun in July 2001. Trenches of this first excavation season were “A” and “B” on the block 229, lots 8-9. It has been discovered that these trenches were a part of the necropolis. In later excavation campaigns excavations were extended towards the southwest and southeast of the trench, where a Early Byzantine church has been discovered.

During the excavation campaigns of 2001-2005, fragments of female figurines were found in a dispersed position. Their find situation makes it is difficult to guess their use, but one can still assume that there must have been a cultic area near the trench. Some of these fragments are a large female bust as well as a half figurine from Trench A in 2003, a very fragmentary bust from the Trench A2 in 2002, a female bust with torso near the western wall and a female bust from the Trench A3 in 2002. In addition to this, 7 torso fragments with drapery, as well as a leg fragment, were collected. Among these fragments an Eros fragment, only head and arm preserved, found at the Trenches A and B in 2003 and a very well preserved female head in Tanagrian style, a further female head in Tanagrian style from the Trench GI in 2004, a peacock from the Trench SI, three well preserved heads from the Trenches GI, GIII and SI, three crowned heads from BI and BII as well as numerous torsos with drapery are to be mentioned.

There figurines from Adramytteion are similar in iconography and technique to the other western Asia Minor find spots such as Phocaea, Pergamon, Smyrna and Myrina. They should be Hellenistic and Roman in date.

In this study the figurines from Adramytteion will be compared to other finds from Asia Minor.

Translated by Ergün Laflı

Terracotta Figurines from Israel: Greek Inspiration and Local Traditions

Adi ERLICH

Dr Adi ERLICH (Haifa)

Art History Department, Haifa University, Mount Carmel, IL-31905 Haifa, ISRAEL.

<adie10@bezeqint.net>

Recent excavations on different sites in Israel have yielded hundreds of Hellenistic terracotta figurines, many of them coming from the southern town of Maresha and the coast cities of Tell Dor and Acco. The figurines come from residences and favissae of shrines, and only seldom from graves. The Palestinian terracottas show diversity and regionalism, together with common features of provinciality reflected in the negligent technique and blurred style. Many of the figurines take part in the Hellenistic koine, while others present unique types and undefined iconography which reflect the local ancient coroplastic traditions. The Athena rhyton from Maresha is an example of both trends: it combines an Achaemenid ritual vessel together with a Greek iconography, made in a local negligent manner. The terracottas from Israel can serve as a test case for the meeting of two cultures: The Greek one, dominant in political terms, and the local mosaic of peoples, which mingled their old traditions with the new ruling culture.

Corruptions at Excavated Terracotta Objects and their Preservation Problems

Bekir ESKİCİ

Dr Bekir ESKİCİ (Ankara)

Ankara Üniversitesi, Başkent Meslek Yüksek Okulu, Konservasyon Programı, Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi, Ek Bina, Zemin Kat, Sıhhiye, TR-06100 Ankara, TURKEY.

<beskici@humanity.ankara.edu.tr>

In this contribution, emphasis will be given to preservation and conservation problems of the terracotta objects. These problems can be classified under consolidation, classification, sun and high temperature factor, washing, bonding, storing, documentation and conservation. The author will question not only terracotta figurines, but generally all terracotta objects in terms of their practical conservation at sites.

Translated by Ergün Laflı

Les moules de Cività di Tricarico (Lucanie, Italie):

techniques et contexte de production.

Sophie FÉRET

Mrs Sophie FÉRET (Paris)

Musée du Louvre – Direction de l’architecture et de la muséographie
F-75058 Paris Cedex 01, FRANCE
<sophie.feret@yahoo.fr>; <sophie.feret@louvre.fr>

Civita di Tricarico est un site fortifié de Lucanie. Dans l’une des maisons fouillées entre 1996 et 2002 par l’Ecole Française de Rome, de nombreux fragments de moules ont été mis au jour. Ce contexte soulève des interrogations sur le dispositif structurel de l’atelier d’un coroplathe. En outre, il ressort de l’examen technique des moules des disparités de traitement et de mise en œuvre des outils de production. Ainsi, se dessinent à travers ces objets modestes quelques indices sur le mode de diffusion, de reproduction et d’interprétation par les artisans locaux des modèles hellénistiques, en particulier ceux de Tarente, Métaponte et Héraclée.

Terracotta Figurines in Funerary Contexts, Iconography and Functions

The Case of Elaiussa Sebaste’s Rock Tombs (1st c. B.C.- 2nd c. A.D.).

Adele Federica FERRAZZOLI

Dr Adele Federica FERRAZZOLI (Rome)

Universita’ degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”, Piazzale A. Moro, 5, I-00185 Rome, ITALY.

<adelefederf@tiscalinet.it>

Nel corso delle campagne di scavo ad opera della Missione Archeologica Italiana dell’Università di Roma “la Sapienza”, che opera ad Elaiussa Sebaste dal 1995, sono state portate in luce e scavate alcune tombe rupestri appartenenti alla fase più antica della necropoli della città. Le tombe, scavate nel pendio della collina appena al di fuori del perimetro urbano, furono obliterate nel II sec. d.C. dalla costruzione del teatro e si presentavano intatte: la ricchezza dei corredi in esse rinvenuti permettono di affrontare uno studio che prenda in esame la loro composizione; in ogni corredo si trovano oggetti in osso, metallo, vetro e ceramica. Rispetto alla produzione di oggetti in ceramica, si nota la quantità e la diversità dei tipi di figurine in terracotta (askoi, statuette di divinità, busti), tutte databili fra il I e il II secolo d.C., e la varietà di balsamari. Interessante è circoscrivere la produzione di questi manufatti ed attribuirne la fabbricazione a atelier della regione (paragoni si ossono trovare con analoghi materiali di Tarso). Interessante inoltre è affrontare lo studio iconografico di queste statuette per chiarirne la funzione, almeno in parte cultuale.

“The Maccabees were removing every pollution purifying the houses in which idols stood…” (I Maccabees 13:47):

Terracotta Figurines of Hellenistic Palestine in Archaeological Context

Moshe FISCHER

Prof. Moshe FISCHER (Tel Aviv)

Department of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, IL-69978 Ramat Aviv, ISRAEL.

<fischer@post.tau.ac.il>

The archaeological and artistic evidence from Hellenistic Palestine (third to first centuries BCE) points to a society which had absorbed Hellenic culture. In this geographical area, however, such a statement should be considered against the background of the Greco-Jewish cultural and religious interaction, mainly following the Biblical Second Commandment forbidding the creation of images. A-priori this should be a delimitation point between ‘Hellenized’ and ‘non-Hellenized’ where art has an important historical and social value. Out of many art objects related to the Hellenistic period terracotta figurines from several sites will be presented here as an attempt at an interpretation of the complex relationships between these two cultural groups. Although often difficult to see every artistic item as cult objects in part they definitely had some cult connotations. They will be presented in relation with their archaeological and historical context. The main case study is the harbor city of Yavneh-Yam (Fig.), but other sites will also be examined, such as Akko-Ptolemais, Dor and Maresha.

Since almost all of the artifacts presented here could be related to Hasmonean destruction layers, they can be seen against the background of the cultural struggle between Greeks/Hellenized and Jews culminating in the Maccabean Wars. On the one side, the Palestinian society of the second century BCE was strongly penetrated by material and artistic culture which originated in the Greek islands, Alexandria and Asia Minor. The artistic finds reflect also cults and religious attitudes, as a further evidence of the reasons of the Greco-Jewish conflict. The archaeological and artistic data as regarded against the historical evidence makes it strongly tempted to link them with I Maccabees 13:47 referring to Simon the Hasmonean’s activity: "[The Maccabees]) were removing every pollution purifying the houses in which idols stood” .

Terracottas of Cypriote Type Found in the Eastern Mediterranean

Sabine FOURRIER

Dr Sabine FOURRIER (Lyon)

Laboratoire HiSoMA-UMR 5189, Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée, 7 rue Raulin,

F-69365 Lyon Cedex 07, FRANCE

<sabine.fourrier@mom.fr>

During the Archaic period (second half of the 7th-first half of the 6th Century B.C.), Cypriote terracottas were widely spread in the Eastern Mediterranean. They were consecrated in sanctuaries and, less frequently, deposited in tombs in many Eastern Greek cities of the Aegean islands and of the coast of Asia Minor.

Although the figurines display a wide range of iconographical and technical differences, most of them can be safely attributed to the production of the Cypriote kingdom of Salamis. Salamis played a prominent role in the connections of Cyprus with Eastern Greece. But a closer examination of the distribution of the finds shows that the Eastern Greeks were mostly responsible for their diffusion in the Aegean.

On a smaller scale, the Cypriote terracottas were found, among other orientalia, in maritime sanctuaries. Some places of find, as the cella of the Athena temple at Old-Smyrna, even suggest that some of them could have a special significance.

Terracottas and ‘Precious Statuettes’.

The Same Iconographies in Clay and in Luxury:

Non-Metallic Materials from Hellenistic to Roman Ages

Elisabetta GAGETTI

Dr Elisabetta GAGETTI (Milan)

Universita’ degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di scienze dell’antichita’, Sezione di archeologia, Via Festa del Perdono 7, I – 20122 Milan, ITALY; and Via Giuliani 10, I - 20052 Monza (MI), ITALY.

<gadgets@armellin.com>

The ‘precious statuettes’ are a luxury production amidst glyptic and sculpture, realized both in hardstones and in some organic precious materials, such as ivory, amber, jet and coral. Their chronological range is wide, Hellenistic to Late Antique age. The subjects of the ‘precious statuettes’ are clearly defined: portraits (both of rulers and of unknown people), gods and mythological characters (often as miniature copies of famous statues), genre scenes. Among these, some themes are particularly interesting as they appear, in their iconography, quite close to terracotta statuettes: Mantelknaben, Dickköpfen, actors and freaks. For some of these ‘precious statuettes’ the original context is also known. On occasion of the conference, it will be very useful to see the ‘precious statuettes’ in comparison with their terracotta models in the light of the most recent research in clay figurines.

Archaic East-Greek Terracottas and Local Imitations from the Sanctuary of the Malophoros at Selinus: Standing Female Figurines

Laura GASPARRI

Ms Laura GASPARRI (Athens)

La Scuola Archeologica italiana di Atene, Odos Parthenonos 14, GR-11742 Athens, GREECE.

<lauragasparri@infinito.it>

The author brings into focus an iconographic homogeneous group of archaic figured terracottas from the sanctuary of the Malophoros in Selinus (Gabrici’s excavations) and actually kept in the Regional Archaeological Museum "A. Salinas” at Palermo. The whole group of archaic figured terracottas represents a female standing figure, clothed with chiton poderes and oblique himation and with or without offering/attribute. The application of the modern methodologies of classification has allowed the subdivision of the patterns in types and these types are further on divided in variants and replicas, therefore the internal evolution of the group was delineated. The author compares the coroplastic with the great sculpture pieces, suggests a chronology and distinguishes places of production with autoptical analyses of the clays The research refers also to the local products, undoubtedly made of matrixes directly from figurines of Ionic importation. The strong differentiation of the qualitative levels of these patterns depends on multilateral factors: differentiation of the artistic ability and artisans' technique, complexity of the question of market, different reception of the Greek and native culture, taste of the clientele, diversified economic availability. In these new perspectives all the interpretative efforts must be direct aiming to draw from the study of the coroplastic, too, the complexity of the social and economic dynamics of the ancient world.

Les figurines en terre cuite de Pétra.

Analyse chrono-typologique du matériel coroplathique

provenant des fouilles suisses d’ez Zantur/Pétra

Laurent GORGERAT

Ms Laurent GORGERAT (Basel)

Seminar für Klassische Archäologie der Universität Basel, Schönbeinstrasse 20,

CH-4056 Basel, SWITZERLAND.

<Laurent.Gorgerat@unibas.ch>

L’étude (thèse de doctorat en phase finale) se consacre aux figurines en terre cuite nabatéennes provenant des fouilles suisses entreprises sur des habitations privées de la colline d’ez Zantur à Pétra/Jordanie (cf. http://pages.unibas.ch/klassarch/petra/ petra_english.html).

La coroplathie nabatéenne est connue comme telle depuis les premiers travaux archéologiques effectuées à Pétra dès les années 1920. Faute de contextes archéologiques datables, elle est restée jusqu’à ce jour l’objet d’une approche purement iconographique et stylistique, principalement basée sur des figurines conservées dans divers musées et collections privées.

Les contextes archéologiques et particulièrement la stratigraphie découverts sur ez Zantur permettent pour la première fois d’établir une séquence chronologique des figurines nabatéennes, de discuter les diverses techniques de production (modelage, moulage et surmoulage, tournage) adoptées par les coroplathes de Pétra d’une part, et d’analyser leur fonction dans un cadre domestique d’autre part.

Les Nabatéens – peuple arabe à l’origine nomade – se sédentarisent durant la seconde moitié du IIe siècle av. J.-C. et développent une propre culture matérielle. Il est possible de démontrer que les premières figurines modelées de type zoomorphe sont produites à la fin du IIe / au début du Ier siècle av. J.-C et présentent une iconographie et un style de tradition orientale. Apparaissent alors successivement durant le Ier siècle av. J.-C. des représentations anthropomorphes elles aussi modelées, puis un important corpus de terres cuites moulées reflétant non seulement une tradition iconographique orientale mais aussi et surtout un processus de réception et d’adaptation de types occidentaux lié directement aux contacts (en premier lieu économiques) des Nabatéens avec le monde hellénistique et romain. Malgré l’introduction du moulage avec son caractère industriel, le modelage (et le tournage) perdurent jusqu’à la fin du IVe siècle apr. J.-C., date à laquelle Pétra fut détruite par un terrible tremblement de terre.

Basée sur des données archéologiques récentes l’analyse tente de livrer une image la plus complète possible de la coroplathie nabatéenne trop longtemps négligée par la recherche.

The Terracotta Statue of Female Deity

from Necropolis of the Bosporan Fortress Iluraton

Vladimir GORONCHAROVSKI

Dr Vladimir GORONCHAROVSKI (St. Petersburg)

Institute of the History of Material Culture of the Russian Academy of Sciencies Dvortsovaya nab., 18, RU-191186 St. Petersburg, RUSSIA.

<goronch@wktnet.ru>

The terracotta statue of female deity, 0,62 m high, from Iluraton – a small fortress of the 1st-3rd centuries AD in the Eastern Crimea – is sufficiently a unique find for the territory of Bosporan kingdom of Roman time. It was discovered about twenty years ago near the entrance of a chambered tomb of the town necropolis. The statue was broken into a great number of pieces on the site of the funeral feast. The terracotta represents a relaxed, slightly turned figure. There is a diadem on her head and a cloak thrown over; its edge rolled into a plait, put over the left arm. There is a chiton underneath, making a lot of picturesque folds, crossed by a narrow belt under the breast line. An oblong oval face of the goddess is absolutely symmetrical; the nose is straight; there is no additional treatment of pupils of the eyes. The reverse side of the terracotta has traces of smoothing of the surface. It is hollow inside, opened at the bottom. The joints of the separate parts of different moulds are carefully smoothed.

Judging by the clay, it is the production of a Bosporan workshop, but its mould was imported. Unfortunately, the hands and attributes of the figure are missing. Nevertheless, we can find such interpretation of the image of such a goddess in the representations of Fortune during the Imperial period. It is emphasized by original coiffure with middle parting and two curled locks on both sides of the neck. This hairing style was in fashion for a very short time : we can see it only in sculptural portraits of Agrippina the Elder, mother of the Emperor Caligula. Apparently idolized mother of the Emperor, as her daughters on the coins, she was represented in the form of Fortune with horn of plenty. Local manufacture of terracotta statues of this goddess, as well as some imitations, could start just in that time, but the period of its existing was very short.

Die Typen der milesischen Terrakotten in archaischer Zeit. Ein Überblick

Volkmar VON GRAEVE

Prof. Volkmar VON GRAEVE (Bochum)

Ruhr-Universität-Bochum, Institut für archäologische Wissenschaften, Universitätsstr. 150,

D-44801 Bochum, GERMANY.

<volkmar.vongraeve@rub.de>

Im Rahmen der letztjährigen Ausgrabungen im archaischen Milet ist besonders in dem neu entdeckten Aphroditeheiligtum eine große Anzahl von figürlichen Terrakotten gefunden worden. Sie verteilen sich etwa in der gleichen Zahl auf das 7. und das 6. Jh. v. Chr. Im Vordergrund des Vortrags steht eine Übersicht über die verwendeten Typen, die in ihrer Vielzahl ein neues Bild der ostionischen archaischen Koroplastik ergeben. Außerdem wird auf ikonographische Fragen imZusammenhang mit dem Kult der Aphrodite eingegangen. In einem dritten Schritt wird die Frage der Lokalisierung behandelt. Auf der Basis des oft zu beobachtenden Phänomens von mehreren Ausformungen aus der gleichen Matrize und mit Hilfe von archäometrischen Tonuntersuchungen kann nachgewiesen werden, daß es eine reiche und eigenständige Entwicklung der milesischen Koroplastik gegeben hat.

New Evidence for Roman Coroplasts in Athens

Marcie HANDLER

Ms Marcie HANDLER (Athens/Cincinnati, OH)

American School of Classical Studies, 54 Souidias Street, GR-10676 Athens, GREECE.

<marcie@agathe.gr>

Scholars of Hellenistic and late Roman Athenian terracottas have posited a gap in coroplastic production in Athens between the late Hellenistic period and the 2nd-3rd centuries A.C., and have suggested that the decline in production was caused by the grim economic situation at that time. This paper, however, provides new evidence to show that terracotta production in Athens was very much alive from the late 1st to the 2nd century AD. In the last 12 years of excavations in the area northwest of the Athenian Agora, hundreds of fragments of terracotta figurines and masks, and figurine and lamp moulds have come to light. While much of the evidence was collected from building fills and a few small deposits in the structures east of the north-south road leading from the Agora out of the city, and the architecture associated with these deposits was heavily disturbed by later building activity in the area, a high concentration of terracottas, as well as the presence of moulds and tools, suggest that a coroplast's workshop was nearby. This workshop context allows a close examination of the production details, as well as some insight into the role that the demands of the market exercised on producers in the changing cultural climate of Roman Athens.

Les échos de types statuaires à travers la coroplathie smyrniote

Isabelle HASSELIN ROUS

Mrs Isabelle HASSELIN ROUS (Paris)

Musée du Louvre, Département des Antiquités grecques, étrusques et romaines,

F-75058 Paris Cedex 01, FRANCE

<isabelle.hasselin@louvre.fr>

La cité de Smyrne abritait dans l’Antiquité l’un des plus importants centres de production coroplathique d’Asie Mineure. Si la Smyrne des époques hautes, occupant le site de Bayraklı, montre quelques vestiges épars d’une activité artisanale de figurines en argile, c’est surtout à partir de la fondation de la nouvelle cité, à moins d’une dizaine de km plus au Sud, que s’est développée une production coroplathique florissante, du début du IIIe s. av. J.-C. jusqu’en 178 ap. J.-C., date à laquelle un tremblement de terre décimait la cité et entraînait la disparition de cet artisanat.

Quatre thèmes jalonnent la production smyrniote : la reproduction de types statuaires, la représentation de types réalistes et de pathologies, les grotesques ou caricatures, les miniatures. Nous nous intéresserons plus particulièrement au premier type démontrant à la fois la virtuosité des coroplathes smyrniotes ainsi que leur savoir-faire technique. Nous tenterons de démontrer les particularités techniques propres à ces ateliers les distinguant peut-être des autres ateliers spécialisés dans les types réalistes. Par ailleurs , il s’agira de répertorier au travers de l’ensemble des collections smyrniotes conservées en Europe principalement, les types statuaires copiés avec prédilection par les coroplathes smyrniotes afin de cerner aussi les goûts d’une clientèle toujours plus avide de décorer leurs luxueuses demeures. Ce qui nous conduira à nous interroger enfin sur la fonction d’une telle production pour laquelle les indices de provenance souvent flous, car issus de fouilles clandestines anciennes, rendent si difficiles l’interprétation de ces figurines.

Gender and the Tanagra Figurines in Antiquity and Beyond

Jessica HUGHES

Dr Jessica HUGHES (Cambridge)

Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street,

Cambridge CB2 3DZ, GREAT BRITAIN.

<jfh27@cam.ac.uk>

This paper focuses on the Tanagra figurines, and their role in the formation of gendered discourses in antiquity and beyond. In terms of constructing historical accounts of gender relations, the Tanagra figurines are a relatively untapped resource. In this paper I argue that the manufacture, material, iconography, scale, context and function of this genre of figurine can be used to uncover both ancient and modern assumptions about the bodies and social roles of women. Viewed against the wider background of classical art and literature, these terracotta figurines can be seen as reinforcing the separation of male and female bodies into two firmly demarcated categories, each associated with starkly contrasting properties and values. I subsequently move on to think about how the relationship between the figurines and gender has been complicated in their post-antique reception. Primarily, I explore how the selection and display of figures by museums, and their description and discussion by scholars, are activities which are clearly informed by our own (culturally-specific) visions of femininity. Other post-antique sources discussed in the paper will include the well-known paintings and sculptures by French artist Jean-Leon Gerome, and the use of the Tanagras in nineteenth-century literature, where references to these figurines serve to create an idealised and fetishised image of womanhood.

Production et diffusion des figurines ioniennes

dans le bassin méditerranéen à l’époque archaïque:

quelques exemples à partir de la reconstitution des séries à Thasos

Stéphanie HUYSECOM-HAXHI

Dr Stéphanie HUYSECOM-HAXHI (Lille)

Université Charles-de-Gaulle – Lille 3, HALMA-IPEL – UMR 8164 (CNRS, Lille 3, MCC), Histoire, Archéologie, Littérature des Mondes Anciens, BP 60149,

F-59653 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, FRANCE.

<shuysecom@hotmail.com>

Les fouilles de Thasos ont révélé une quantité non négligeable de terres cuites d’origine ionienne. Si certaines ont été fabriquées dans les ateliers du sud de l’Ionie d’où elles ont été importées, la plupart ont cependant été produites sur place. Comme aucun moule susceptible d’avoir été fabriqué en Ionie n’a été retrouvé à Thasos, et qu’aucun argument technique ne permet de savoir si les Thasiens auraient effectivement pu importer des moules étrangers, on supposera que la production, à Thasos, des types ioniens a été rendue possible grâce au procédé du surmoulage, nouvellement introduit dans les ateliers locaux. Parmi les nombreux types importés et reproduits à Thasos, cinq retiendront ici toute notre attention, non pas du fait de leur importance numérique dans le mobilier thasien ni de leur très large diffusion à travers la Méditerranée, mais plutôt en raison de l’originalité de leur mode de création : il s’agit de trois koraï à l’oiseau et de deux dames trônant, qui ont la particularité d’être pourvus du même type de visage.

Cette communication est donc tout d’abord l’occasion de présenter ce processus d’élaboration des types ainsi que ses conséquences sur l’établissement des séries concernées. Les exemplaires de Thasos serviront ensuite de point de départ à l’étude de la production dérivée et de la diffusion de ces séries, non seulement à Thasos mais aussi dans l’ensemble du bassin méditerranéen. L’objectif d’une telle recherche est de commencer à établir une carte de répartition des types ioniens à travers la Méditerranée, carte qui donnerait diverses informations, à la fois sur les contextes de découverte, lorsqu’ils sont évidemment connus, sur le statut des ateliers récepteurs, et sur la côte de popularité, si l’on peut s’exprimer ainsi, des différents types. Enfin, à partir de ces renseignements, il sera peut-être possible de trouver des explications à l’engouement, généralisé, qu’ont suscité ces productions ioniennes.

Terracotta Protomes from the Sanctuary on the Maiskaya Mount:

Problems and Methods of Dating

Tatiana ILYINA

Mrs Tatiana ILYINA (Moscow)

Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, c/o Volchonka, 12, RU-121019 Moscow, RUSSIA.

<TIlyina@yandex.ru>

In the course of archaeological excavations on the Maiskaya Mount (a dirt volcano, 1 km to the south from Phanagoria, Asian Bosporos) conducted under the auspices of the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts (Moscow) in the late 1950s-early 1960s, a rectangular building in antis (temple?) has been uncovered. On the southern side of this building a favissa was excavated, which mostly contained numerous fragments (up to 1164 pieces) of female protomes. Based on this material the building existed from the late VIth to the IIIrd century BC and was destroyed by fire in the beginning of the IInd century BC.

The absence of stratification in the favissa complicates the dating of the protomes. Studying their iconography allowed to distinguish three chronological groups that include one or several iconographical types known in Greece: 1) protomes – masks of Ionian type (late VIth-early Vth century BC or until the mid-Vth century BC; 2) protomes – masks and half-figures of a goddess with objects (middle-second half of the Vth century BC - beginning of the IVth century BC); 3) protomes – half-figures of Boeotian type (IVth-IIIth century BC). It has to be noted that the existence of the imported types in the local coroplastic production lasted longer than in the areas of their origin.

We use a “mechanical” method that allows to follow the development of the type in the local coroplastic tradition. This method is based on observing changes of the forms, sizes of the figurines and appearance of the new variants in the course of prolonged manufacturing of the same type. This method allowed to detect from three to seven generations in each type and to determine an approximate place occupied by each figurine in the series. Thus, we have established a relative chronology, although a question of precise dating remains open. Since all terracotta figurines were fired, it is possible to apply an archeomagnetic method. Based on residual magnetization of objects, it allows to determine their precise age. In the case of our protomes we were able to date them with approximation of only 25 years.

Terracotta Figurines from Pompei: Gladiators

Vincenza IORIO

Dr Vincenza IORIO (Naples)

Via Gabrio Serbelloni 39, I-00176 Rome, ITALY; and Via Lago d'Averno 46, I-80147 Naples, ITALY.

<vincenzaiorio@libero.it>

The archaeological site of the ancient Pompeii is surely one of the most important areas of Roman world. The excavations of the ancient town gives the archaeologists many possibilities to know numerous aspects of Roman life.

During the excavations, many terracotta statuettes were found in varous contexts: temples, houses, public buildings…

Among the statuettes, some pieces are very interesting, like those of gladiators found in a tomb of the necropolis of Herculaneum Gate, the ancient “Veru Sarinu”, in the North-West area of ancient town.

In the Roman funerary world, the theme of gladiators is very present. In fact we have some marble or stucco relieves or painting of gladiators ; here the presence of the terracotta statuettes of gladiators concerns a funerary contest. Besides, their presence can help us to understand the function of the theme of the gladiators in the funerary contest.

Terracotta Figurines from Yumaklar/Arpalık Tepe Cave Site in Pisidia

Gül IŞIN

Dr Gül IŞIN (Antalya)

Akdeniz Üniversitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi, Arkeoloji Bölümü, Kampüs,

TR-07058 Antalya, TURKEY.

<gulisin@akdeniz.edu.tr>

A group of archaeological finds, recovered by illegal looters, was acquired by the Antalya Museum from a cave site, called Yumaklar/Arpalık Tepe, 15 km south of influential Pisidian sites of Selge and Pednelissus, in an intersection area between Pisidian and Pamphylian territories. This group of finds, dating between the 6th c. BC and the 4th c. AD, indicates the existence of a local and significant cultic center. An enormous number and variety of the material was already mentioned in a 2005 preliminary report; in this communication, however, it will be re-discussed in terms of typology, style and iconography, in conjunction with the entire archaeological and epigraphical data from the site.

Translated by Ergün Laflı

The Terracotta Figurines of « Bau Z »

and of the « Podiensaalgebäude » in Pergamon

Sarah JAPP

Dr Sarah JAPP (Berlin)

Beuthstrasse 44, D-13156 Berlin, GERMANY

<sarahjapp@yahoo.de>

Unter der Leitung von W. Radt legte das Deutsche Archäologische Institut am Südabhang des Burgberges von Pergamon innerhalb der sog. Stadtgrabung zwei Bauwerke frei, die auf Grund des Fundmaterials, nicht zuletzt der Terrakotten, als dionysische Vereinshäuser angesprochen werden können.

Der in den Jahren 1989 bis 1993 aufgedeckte sogenannte Bau Z läßt sich in seinen Anfängen wohl in das frühe 2. Jh. v. u. Z. datieren. Um einen Peristylhof gruppierten sich mehrere Räume, von denen einer, der über eine große Kultnische verfügt, besonderes Augenmerk verdient. Während der folgenden Jahrhunderte erlebte das Gebäude einige architektonische Umgestaltungen, so erhielt etwa der Raum mit der Kultnische in römischer Zeit ein äußerst qualitätvolles Mosaik mit der Darstellung dionysischer Masken. Weiterhin fügte man einen Annex mit zwei Baderäumen und eine Art Atrium hinzu, der später in einen Wirtschaftshof mit Küche umgewandelt wurde. Architektur und Innenausstattung erlauben zusammen mit dem Fundmaterial eine Deutung des Komplexes als dionysisches Vereinshaus. Das Fundrepertoire, zu dem auch zahlreiche Terrakotten zu rechnen sind, gibt nicht nur Aufschluß über die chronologische Abfolge innerhalb der Räume, sondern ebenso über deren Funktion. Neben manchen TC-Gegenständen kamen etliche koroplastische Fragmente menschlicher Figuren sowie Gestalten aus dem dionysischen Bereich, wie Pan und Silen, ferner Darstellungen der Gottheiten Aphrodite und Eros zum Vorschein. Darüber hinaus zählen Schauspieler und Grotesken, Gladiatoren- und Gliederpuppen, Kinder- und Frauenköpfchen sowie Tiere und Fabelwesen zum Fundgut.

Das sog. Podiensaalgebäude wurde Mitte der 70er Jahre des 20. Jhs. freigelegt und von H. Schwarzer mitsamt der Einzelfunde, einschließlich der Terrakotten, wissenschaftlich bearbeitet. Es war von der 2. Hälfte des 2. Jhs. v. u. Z. bis zur Mitte des 4. Jhs. u. Z. in Benutzung, seine Zuweisung an das dionysische Kultkollegium der Bukoloi ist dank epigraphischer Zeugnisse gesichert. Ursprünglich als Peristylhaus konzipiert, wandelte man es nach dem Erdbeben des Jahres 17 u. Z. in ein Hofhaus um. Aus jener Phase stammt die Schuttfüllung in einer Zisterne, welche unter anderem mehrere Hundert Fragmente von figürlichen Terrakotten enthielt, die zum Inventar des hellenistischen Vereinshauses gehört haben müssen. Anders als in der Kaiserzeit zählten solche Terrakotten zunächst scheinbar zu den bevorzugten Votiven der Bukoloi. Hervorzuheben sind Darstellungen aus dem dionysischen Bereich, aber auch solche von Gottheiten wie Aphrodite und Kybele, die wenigstens partiell auf synkretistische Züge des Dionysoskultes hinzudeuten vermögen. Daneben finden sich etliche Frauen- und Knabenköpfchen sowie Sitz- und Gliederpuppen, Figuren von Schauspielern und Tänzerinnen sowie Tierfigürchen und Fragmente von Theatermasken.

Die Terrakotten aus dem sog. Bau Z und dem sog. Podiensaalgebäude verdienen aus mehreren Gründen Interesse, denn sie gewähren nicht nur Aufschluß über die Funktion der koroplastischen Werke und damit Einblicke in religiöse Praktiken während des Hellenismus und der Kaiserzeit, sondern sie erhellen auch manche Fragen, die sich in bezug auf die Nutzungszeit der beiden Vereinshäuser ergeben.

The Terracotta Statuettes from Aghios Sostis Sanctuary at Tegea in Arcadia:

A Publication Project

Anna KARAPANAGIOTOU, Iphigeneia LEVENTI

Dr Anna KARAPANAGIOTOU (Tripolis)

39th Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Tripolis Archaeological Museum,

Evangelistrias 8, GR-22100 Tripolis, GREECE.

<timpikon@otenet.gr>

Dr Iphigeneia LEVENTI (Volos)

Department of History, Archaeology and Social Anthropology, University of Thessaly,

Argonauton and Philellenon, GR-38221 Volos, GREECE.

<levnic@hol.gr>; <ileventi@uth.gr>

An extramural sanctuary of ancient Tegea in the Peloponnese situated on the Aghios Sostis hill, and possibly identified with a sanctuary of Demeter and Kore karpophoroi (Paus. 8.53.7) was excavated in the 19th and early 20th centuries and yielded among other votive offerings a great number of terracotta statuettes. This material briefly referred to in scientific journals is nowadays scattered among the local Archaeological Museums of Tegea and Tripolis and the National Archaeological Museum at Athens, while examples are kept in Museums abroad. The bulk of the statuettes remains unpublished.

A common project under the auspices of the 39th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities (Tripolis) (Dr Anna Karapanagiotou) and the Department of History, Archaeology and Social Anthropology of the University of Thessaly (Volos) (Dr Iphigeneia Leventi) is orientated to the study and publication in the first place of the material kept in the Tegea and Tripolis MuseuMs These are the terracottas excavated by K. Rhomaios in 1909 and 1910 and are studied after written permission by the Archaeological Society at Athens.

The first results of this scientific project will be presented in the colloquium. The paper will address questions of the wide chronological range of the material, the development of the statuette types from more generic to more specific to the local cult and the interrelations in the production between the possibly local workshop and major production centers in the Peloponnese and beyond. Special interest will be paid to fragments of life-size terracotta statues mentioned by earlier scholars and recently identified in the Tegea Museum.

The general publication program will study the terracotta statuettes along with the other finds from the Aghios Sostis sanctuary (lamps, bronze statuettes, vessels, inscribed roof tiles, marble reliefs) and possibly will comprise the results of new excavation planned in the region in order to establish ultimately the character of the cult exercised there.

Terracotta Figurines from Labraunda, Caria

Lars KARLSSON

Dr Lars KARLSSON (Uppsala)

Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Box 626, SE-75126 Uppsala, SWEDEN.

<Lars.Karlsson@antiken.uu.se>

During the Swedish excavations at the Carian Sanctuary of Zeus Labraundos in 1948 to 1953, around 80 terracotta figurines were discovered. They have not been studied and I would like to take the opportunity to present some of them at the Terracottas Conference. The terracotta figurines consist of nine archaic female so-called protomes, one head of Athena and around 40 other female figurines, many of Tanagra type. One complete figurine shows a seated Kybele with a tympanon of the type discovered at Metropolis.

Terracottas from a Hellenistic Chamber Tomb at Mylasa, Caria

Abuzer KIZIL

Dr Abuzer KIZIL (Muğla)

Muğla Üniversitesi, Milas Sıtkı Koçman Meslek Yüksek Okulu, Atatürk Mahallesi TKİ Lojmanları Arkası, Beçin, Milas, TR-48200 Muğla, TURKEY.

<ayzer65@gmail.com>

A Hellenistic chamber tomb, where some terracottas were collected, has been found in October 2005 during a sondage for a new construction in Milas, ancient Mylasa, capital of Caria. It consisted of two rooms in its front and back. It is secured through the small finds that the grave was in use beginning from the 2nd half of the 4th century until Roman period. This tomb that probably belonged to a certain family or dynasty has a rich variety of objects. Some of the objects, such as a masc, a female figurine with lyra, bezzers etc. indicate that at least a part of the family was artist.

Six terracotta figurines from this tomb were studied. Most remarkable ones are a bearded masc and an older Herakles that were produced of micaceous pinky clay. Others are a lyr playing female, two Artemises, and a probable Aphrodite. All of these figurines are from the Hellenistic period.

Translated by Ergün Laflı

Terracotta Figurines of Demetra and Cora-Persephona

from Ancient Chersoneses in Taurica. Production and Iconography

Elena KLENINA

Dr Elena KLENINA (Sevastopol)

Str. Drevnaja 1, UA-99045 Sevastopol, UKRAINE.

<klenina_e@yahoo.com>

Chersoneses in Taurica was found not lter the end of the 5th century BC in the southwest part of the Crimean peninsula by the Doric Greeks. The religion of Chersoneses citizens from the moment of the foundation of the town was naturally connected to agriculture and, in particular, with wine growing. The most honored gods of the Greek pantheon here were Demeter and Cora-Persephone, Dionysos and Heracles.

The representations of Demeter and Cora form the most numerous group in collection of terracotta figurines of National reservation of Tauric Chersoneses. The heyday of these cults in Chersoneses was the 4th-3rd centuries BC. They were produced in local workshops in this period. Demeter was shown often as a portly woman with plump lips, large chin and two large wrinkles on the neck. The head is decorated with a garland of fruits and leafs, the ears with large earrings. A similar type of Demeter figurine was produced in Olbia. In the Roman period another original type of terracotta figurines appeared in Chersoneses. It figured Demeter muffled in a raincoat, with crossed hands on the chest. These figurines were expressed votive nature.

The most widespread image of a Cora-Persephone in Chersoneses was the representation of the goddess as a young girl on a background of a veil above a head. In the left hand she holds a bird or flower, rarely the pomegranate. Local masters created the original type of protoma to be reflected dual nature of the goddess. The woman is figured naked up to hips and lets her hair down to shoulders; on her head a diadem, and round earrings in her ears. In the Roman period the image of Cora lost the dual character and began to play the role of the only goddess of underground kingdom till the Late Roman time.

Terracotta figurines enable to speak about the obviously domestic nature of a cult to Demeter and Cora. Figurines of these goddesses were discovered in domestic sanctuaries in Chersoneses and also its chora.

Cueing Behavior: Figurines in Roadside Shrines at Corinth

Theodora B. KOPESTONSKY

Ms Theodora B. KOPESTONSKY (Buffalo, NY/Athens)

American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 54 Souidias, GR-10676 Athens, GREECE.

<tbk2@buffalo.edu>

Each figurine dedicated at a sanctuary or shrine is an intentional human act, deliberately chosen by the individual for that moment. Some offerings may be chosen with an eye towards specific goals (i.e. healing votives) while others may have been dedicated out of cultural expectations of religious behavior. These cultural expectations appear in the landscape of the shrine, signaling to the observer by means of past dedications what is appropriate there. While the range of offerings can vary depending on a deity, shrine or locale, the repetition and pattern of particular types of figurines indicates Greek preferences and practice at specific sites.

At Corinth, beginning in the archaic period, several small shrines emerge, scattered throughout the community. Often placed at crossroads, near water sources or in transitional spaces, these shrines contain a complex collection of terracotta figurines. In particular, the Classical extramural shrine at Kokkinovrysi, located next to a spring and a major thoroughfare to the city, provides an interesting mixed assemblage including handmade circles of dancers, dogs, and horses as well as mould-made standing draped females. However, the emphasis seems to be on the dancing figurines, which reflect a unique local tradition that parts from the larger sanctuaries in the Corinthia and greater Peloponnese.

Since figurines are a standard accompaniment to worship, then a better understanding of their usage can reveal insights into the complex network of local cult as well as the greater realm of Hellenic ritual and belief. This paper will examine the figurines from one roadside shrine, Kokkinovrysi, as a model to begin the assessment of the function of local dedications outside the setting of the large scale sanctuary.

The Problem of Manufacture Center of Terracotta Female Protomes

in the Aegean World:

A Terracotta Female Protome Mold from Sigeion

Reyhan KÖRPE

Mr Reyhan KÖRPE (Çanakkale)

Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi, Tarih Bölümü, Terzioğlu Kampüsü

TR-17100 Çanakkale, TURKEY.

<reyhankorpe@gmail.com>

Large numbers of female protomes come from excavations of the necropoleis of Assos, Tenedos, Thymbra, Antandros and other unspecified inland locations of the Troad. Similar protomes have also been uncovered at Rhodes, Aegean Islands, Mainland Greece and Sicilian poleis. The Troad protomes are mould-made with some parts added by hand, varying in height between 10 and 45 cm. They are female figures, open at back, with suspension hole pierced in top, and some have traces of paint.

All protomes that have been unearthed in Troad are funerary gifts, placed in graves along with pottery and other small objects. Although we do not know exactly why they are deposited in graves, their context suggests that they are associated with Demeter, Kore and Aphrodite that they have chthonic significance.

There has been much scholarly discussion about places of protome manufacture. Rhodes has been proposed as a major protome manufacture center since large numbers of protomes have been uncovered there. It has even been suggested that the protomes unearthed in the Troad come from Rhodes.

Rescue excavation conducted by Çanakkale Museum in 2001 at the site of Sigeion has shed light on the origin of the protomes found in the Troad. We excavated what we think is a dump of a pottery workshop where we unearthed large numbers of pottery fragments, slag heaps and, most interestingly, a fragment of protome and a fragment of protome mould.

It is quite likely that Sigeion, an Athenian colony founded at the end of the 7th century BC at the entrance of the Hellespont, was an important center for the production of protomes and that it must have supplied the cities of the Troad and the Aegean World.

Thermoluminescence Dating of Coroplastics: A Case Study

Korak KONUK

Dr Korak KONUK (Bordeaux/Istanbul)

Institut Français d'Etudes Anatoliennes – Georges Dumezil, Palais de France, Nuru Ziya Sokak No. 10, P.K. 54, Beyoğlu, TR-34433 Istanbul, TURKEY.

<koraykonuk@gmail.com>

No abstract received yet.

Terracotta Figurines from Samos Island: A Case of Domestic Cult?

Maria KOSMA

Ms Maria KOSMA (Chalkis)

11th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, 13 Eleutheriou Venizelou Str.,

GR-34100 Chalkis, GREECE.

<mar_kosma@yahoo.com>; <protocol@iaepka.culture.gr>

The Greek Archaeological Service is undertaking both systematic and urgent archaeological researches in the ancient city of Samos, which is almost totally covered by the modern village Pythagorion, bringing out important aspects of city life. During an urgent archaeological research we uncovered in the interior of a house a small wall built against one corner. In the created space domestic ware, lamps, terracotta figurines etc. were rejected. All the stuff belongs to the Roman Imperial Period. At the bottom clay tiles were standing upright configured an even smaller place, where some terracotta figurines stood in situ. These figurines are earlier and can be dated in the 1st century BC. I personally believe that we had the chance to find an evidence for a small domestic cult, which later was abandoned. The worshipped deity is not clearly identified.

The figurines are classified according their iconographic type. Important information can be added to the history and religion of the island, taking account of the fact that during the Roman Period Samos island was under the administrative organization of Asia Minor. The affinities between the coroplastic production of Samos and the coroplastic production of Asia Minor are really astonished.

Coroplastic Art from Thebes, Boeotia:

Evidence from the Study of Terracotta Figurines found in Graves

Elena KOUNTOURI, Vangelis VIVLIODETIS, Alexandra CHARAMI

Dr Elena KOUNTOURI (Athens)

General Secretary Office, Greek Ministry of Culture, Athens, GREECE

<ekountri@ath.forthnet.gr>

Dr Vangelis VIVLIODETIS (Athens)

National Archaeological Museum of Athens,

44, Patission Str., GR-10682 Athens, GREECE

Dr Alexandra CHARAMI (Thebes)

9th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities at Thebes,

1 Threpsiadou Str. & Keramopoullou Sq., GR-32200 Thebes, GREECE

Part of an extensive cemetery in use throughout the Geometric, Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic and Roman periods, came to light during 1999-2000, at a plot situated on the NE of Thebes. The graves discovered belong to the large NE necropolis of Thebes, sections of which have been excavated in the wider area. The excavation of the plot revealed a total of 185 graves, of various types and date. There are included 46 tile-covered pits, 43 cremations, 30 cist graves, 41 pit graves, 24 jar burials and one terracotta sarcophagus. Five of the graves are dated to the geometric period, 120 to the archaic and classical period, 54 to the hellenistic times, and particularly between the beginnings of the 3rd century up to the first half of the 1st century BC, and 7 to the Roman period.

Among the burial goods several groups of terracotta figurines, dated from the archaic to the hellenistic period have come to light, belonging to different types of deities, human beings and animals. The study of these figurines supplies information on theban coroplastic production from the archaic to the hellenistic times, for the influences integrated at times from other workshops, for the use of figurines in theban burial habits, depending on the subjects’ sex and age, and their interpretation.

Les figurines d’hydrophores. Milieu(x) et signification(s)

Jacky KOZLOWSKI

Dr Jacky KOZLOWSKI (Lille)

Université Charles-de-Gaulle – Lille 3, HALMA-IPEL – UMR 8164 (CNRS, Lille 3, MCC)

Histoire, Archéologie, Littérature des Mondes Anciens,

BP 60149, F-59653 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, FRANCE.

<jackykozlowski@yahoo.fr>

L’hydrophore est la représentation d’une (jeune) femme debout, vêtue de façon plus ou moins variable, qui soutient de l’une des mains une hydrie posée sur le sommet de son crâne. Dans le monde grec, rencontré de façon privilégiée dans les sanctuaires consacrés à des divinités féminines, et en particulier de Déméter et Korè, ce type iconographique de figurine a parfois été découvert en milieu funéraire et plus rarement dans des habitations.

Il sera établi, dans un premier temps, dans quelles proportions les figurines d’hydrophores ont été retrouvées et dans quel milieu, ce qui permettra de définir à la fois leur distribution chronologique et géographique. Dans un second temps, on s’interrogera sur la signification de cet objet : ce type de représentation renvoie-t-il à de simples jeunes femmes rapportant l’eau de la fontaine à la maison ou leur signification est-elle plus profonde ?

Terracotta Figurines from the Parion Necropolis

Candan KOZANLI

Mrs Candan KOZANLI (Çanakkale)

Çanakkale Müzesi Müdürlüğü, Arkeoloji Müzesi, Barbaros Mah., Yüzüncü Yıl Cad.,

Çanakkale, TURKEY.

<cankozanli@yahoo.com>

In 2004, the Çanakkale Archeology Museum conducted a rescue excavation in the necropolis of Parion, where large numbers of terracotta figurines were uncovered from 178 graves. Most of the figurines were found in infant and child graves.

We shall focus on three infant/child graves, catalogued as M. 79, M. 100 and M. 121, where we unearthed eighty-three terracotta figurines and some coins. The terracotta figurines found in these graves are listed as follows:

    M.79

      Eros, Cock, Dog

    M.100

      Dionysos

      Herme

      Eros

      Aphrodite

      Harpokrates

      Scribe-educator?

      Ephebe

      Animals (Dog, Sparrow, Cock, Pig, Monkey)

      Rattle

    M.121

      Women

Overall, the quality of workmanship is poor and it seems that flawed products were used as grave goods. Some of the terracotta figurines have traces of white slip and paint (pink, blue black and purple). Some figurines were inscribed EΛΕΝΗC, BACCOY, EPMO, EP, ΦІΛ, ΠΚ, ΠΑΠΑ, ΚΑΛ. We noted that terminal figures of Dionysos and Herme as well as Eros and animal figurines, were always placed in the infant/child graves. On the other hand, Aphrodite figurines were considered more suitable for adult graves.

Le terrecotte di Kyme eolica

Sebastiana LAGONA

Prof. Sebastiana LAGONA (Catania)

Università di Catania, Instituto di Archeologia, Via A. di Sangiuliano 262, I-95124 Catania, ITALY.

<slagona@unict.it>

Kyme eolica, a quanto oggi risulta da numerose evidenze archeologiche, fu centro di produzione di figurine in terracotta, un tipo di manufatto diffuso nelle aree sacre dell’area mediterranea come offerta alla divinità. Da Kyme vengono, infatti, numerosi esemplari di oggetti in terracotta, statuette, placchette e piccoli oggetti di varia forma, con una ricchezza di tipi degna di nota.

Dall’esame dei reperti dai vecchi scavi e di quelli dalle recenti indagini italiane ancora in corso si evince che le terrecotte di Kyme rappresentano in genere pochi tipi che continuano nel tempo: il tipo della Kourotrophos, reso quasi sempre con una figura femminile con un bambino in braccio, quello del fanciullo accovacciato e, meno frequentemente tipi di eroti o figure femminili panneggiate. Tra le placchette, numerose quelle con un cavaliere al galoppo.

Il tipo piu’ numeroso e piu’ ricco di varianti e’ quello della della Kourotrophos, che certamente era connesso con la divinita’ femminile piu’ venerata a Kyme, Cibele prima, collegata con il culto della natura e della riproduzione, indubbiamente una delle piu’ antiche del Mediterraneo, Iside poi. Un altro tipo interessante e’ quello della figura efebica alata, che si trova soprattutto negli strati post-classici, con esemplari di notevole raffinatezza di lavorazione che fanno pensare a modelli artistici come l’Eros di Prassitele.

Si impone oggi un esame dei tipi datati “da scavo”, visti in raffronto con i grandi complessi di figurine finora pubblicati, in particolare con quello di Myrina, finora ritenuta unica produttrice nella regione degli Eoli, certo come conseguenza della esauriente pubblicazione dei risultatı degli scavi Reinach. Le prime osservazioni riguardano la raffinatezza nella lavorazione di alcuni esemplari, la cronologia e la pertinenza degli stessi ai culti praticati nella citta’, in particolare a quelli della dea madre, di Artemide e di Apollo: basta dare uno sguardo ad alcuni dei tipi qui presentati per comprendere che lo stesso Reinach e quelli che lo seguirono sbagliarono nel giudicare, tratti probabilmente in inganno dallo scarso numero di reperti da Kyme a quel tempo ancora disponibili per lo studio.

Per quanto riguarda la cronologia, oggi possiamo dire che la presenza a Kyme di terrecotte figurate ha inizio alla fine dell’eta’ arcaica, con tipi come la kourotrophos e una figurina maschile, che continuano ad essere presenti anche in eta’ classica ed ellenistica, quando compaiono anche statuette rappresentanti Afrodite, Artemide o un eros alato. Meno numerosi i tipi di eta’ imperiale romana, tra i quali spiccano le figurine femminili ammantate.

Quello che e’ certo e’ che a Kyme c’era una fabbrica di terrecotte figurate, alla quale si puo’ attribuire la maggior parte dei manufatti eseguiti in loco, da artigiani che talvolta, coscienti del loro valore, firmavano le loro opere. Non ci fermiamo a discutere sulle firme degli “artisti” di Kyme, i quali, piuttosto che “allievi” di quelli di Myrina erano forse i loro “ maestri”. Aspettiamo di vedere

dalle ulteriori analisi quale fosse il ruolo di Kyme come produttrice di terrecotte figurate in Eolide e - perche’ no? - nel bacino del Mediterraneo.

Introduction I: Greek and Roman Coroplastic Studies in Turkey

Ergün LAFLI

Dr Ergün LAFLI (Izmir)

Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi, Arkeoloji Bölümü, Tınaztepe/Kaynaklar Yerleşkesi, Buca, TR-35160 Izmir, TURKEY.

<elafli@yahoo.ca>

Upto present not much has been done in terms of coroplastic studies in Turkey. In this paper several different topics that are crucial for understanding the coroplastic studies in Turkey from its beginning in the 19th century until present will be presented.

Most important problems in coroplastic studies can be summarizied as follows:

1. difficulty in counting and processing such a large number of items;

2. problems facing the analysis of the material from the excavated contexts;

3. lack of contextual assistance in dating the figurines from the museum pieces;

4. lack of a standart language for the description of their stylistic analysis.

While these problems create difficulties in analyzing the material, they do not present insurmountable obstacles. For example, the lack of contextual evidence for certain types of figurines can be overcome by using well-documented figurines from other sites, such as Tarsus, Pergamon or Troy. Any further improvement of the dating must rely on both stylistic interpretation and comparisons with work in other media, such as stone and bronze; this was not done sufficiently yet. The figurines can be examined in view of their cultic context and can be looked at in relation to two parts: functional and symbolic. But in most cases excavated materials in Turkey were presented without any contextual analysis.

We would like to provide a nice overview of Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic and Roman coroplastic techniques and focuses on what the material from Asia Minor can add to the existing knowledge base.

It is hoped that the proceedings volume of this Conference will break new ground with regard to the field of coroplastic studies.

Le statuette votive dal naiskos del santuario di Zeus Megistos di Iasos

Maurizio LANDOLFI

Mr Maurizio LANDOLFI (Ancona)

Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici delle Marche, Via Birarelli, 18, I-60100 Ancona, ITALY.

<soprint@archeomarche.it>; <iasos@hotmail.com>

Nell’area del santuario di Zeus Megistos, a Iasos, all’interno del naiskos marmoreo ascrivibile all’età tardo-classica, sotto il pavimento, è stato messo in luce un deposito di materiali votivi di fine VI-inizio V sec. a.C., pertinente ad un precedente luogo di culto. Tale stipe è caratterizzata dalla presenza di numerosi thymiateria fittili, da un alto numero di protomi femminili in terracotta del tipo cosiddetto ’rodio’ e da statuette, insieme a ceramiche sia di produzione locale (ceramiche ioniche a fasce), sia di importazione (vasi di Fikellura, di Chios e di Clazomene, ceramica attica a figure nere, a figure rosse, a vernice nera e anfore acrome di tipo milesio). La presentazione di questo complesso di statuette, sia di animali sia soprattutto a figura umana, virili e femminili, stanti e sedute, di diverse tipologie e la precisa definizione delle diverse classi cui esse sono riconducibili, con l’individuazione dei rispettivi centri di produzione, si rivelano di notevole importanza, in quanto in grado di offrire un valido contributo per una migliore conoscenza sia delle problematiche connesse a questa classe di materiali (produzione, diffusione, iconografia e funzione), sia di quelle relative al nostro luogo di culto.

Männliche Puppen aus Ephesos in der Art des Fischertypus

Claudia LANG-AUINGER

Dr Claudia LANG-AUINGER (Vienna)

Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut für Kulturgeschichte der Antike,

Bäckerstraße 13, A-1010 Vienna, AUSTRIA.

<claudia.lang@oeaw.ac.at>

Im Laufe der mehr als 100 jährigen Grabungsgeschichte von Ephesos fanden sich insgesamt 11 Terrakotten, die unter diesem Titel aufzuzählen sind. So wie es bisher scheint, waren die Gliederpuppen in dieser Gestalt auf Ephesos beschränkt, bis auf eine Ausnahme, die sich im Museum von Aydın befindet und aus dem Siedlungsgebiet von Tralles stammt.

Fundkontexte sind leider nur von drei Gliederpuppen bekannt. Sie treten innerhalb spätehellenistisch-augusteischer Terrakottaensembles auf, aber nur einmal, nicht in Wiederholungen wie das bei Aphrodite und Eros üblich ist. Die Tonpuppen finden sich besonders in Gesellschaft dieser beiden Götter. Die Gliederpuppe von der Seite betrachtet, sticht durch ihren vorgewölbten Bauch und noch mehr durch ihren herausgedrehten Steiß ins Auge. Durch die Seitenansicht wird klar, dass kein Fischer gemeint sein kann. Es handelt sich um eine Groteske, die durch die Gestalt der Gliederpuppe noch weiter gesteigert wird.

Die Bedeutung dieser grotesken Gliederpuppen kann nur über das gesamte Terrakottaensemble, in dem sie sich befunden haben, erschlossen werden.

Production et diffusion des figurines d’enfants en Méditerranée orientale. L’exemple de la vieille nourrice assise

Clotilde LÉCUYER

Dr Clotilde LÉCUYER (Gaillac)

2 Rue de Verdun, F-81600 Gaillac, France.

<clotilde.lecuyer@free.fr>

Dès la seconde moitié du IVe s. av. J.-C., les figurines en terre cuite montrant des enfants vont se multiplier dans la coroplathie antique : ce sont des bébés, des garçons et des fillettes, montrés seuls ou accompagnés, dans des attitudes très variées qui sont ainsi représentés. La grande diversité des motifs et l’expansion très rapide de la production dans l’ensemble du monde grec méditerranéen apparaissent comme étant symptomatiques de l’évolution philosophique, sociale et religieuse de la civilisation hellénique.

Parmi la très grande variété des types produits, les représentations de vieilles nourrices allaitant ou portant un petit enfant dans les bras sont fabriquées dès le début du IVe s. av. J.-C. en Méditerranée orientale. Un type se dégage qui témoigne de sa diffusion dans l’ensemble du bassin oriental de la Méditerranée. Il représente une vieille nourrice assise sur un siège, tenant sur ses genoux un petit enfant nu. Provenant de Tanagra, de Thèbes, de Délos, de l’Artémision de Thasos, de Grèce, ainsi que de Myrina, d’Alexandrie ou d’Antinoé, ce sont quinze figurines et l’avers d’un moule qui illustrent ce type sur trois générations successives de production.

La comparaison ainsi que la prise de mesures comparatives sur ces exemplaires permet de mettre en relief à la fois les modes de fabrication, la succession des générations, ainsi que les zones de dispersion du type dans le bassin oriental de la Méditerranée. Créé en effet sans doute initialement en Attique vers 330-300 av. J.-C., ce type de « style tanagréen » met en lumière des liens existant entre différentes régions à l’époque hellénistique, ainsi que les différents modes de transmission des types (envoi de figurines ou de moules, copie d’artisans grecs ou locaux). Il témoigne également du succès que ce thème a rencontré dès sa création.

Reconsidering Cypro-Geometric and Cypro-Archaic Terracottas:

Issues of Classification and Interpretation

Anastasia (Natasha) LERIOU

Dr Anastasia (Natasha) LERIOU (Athens)

Hellenikes Ekdoseis, 10 Kaplanon & Massalias Street, GR-10680 Athens, GREECE.

<nleriou@yahoo.gr>

The general characteristics of the Cypriot Early Iron Age are generally thought to have had been defined by two major influxes of people from abroad: the Mycenaean colonisation-migration in the 12th and 11th centuries and the Phoenician establishment during the 9th century. Although considered as historical events established beyond doubt by the vast majority of researchers, the archaeological narratives of both the Mycenaean colonisation and the Phoenician establishment are being systematically revised and modified during the last decades. This should be viewed as the combined result of development in theoretical archaeological thought, the unearthing of new evidence and the reconsideration of old material.

As the culture-historical approach towards material culture has constituted the theoretical framework for the construction of the narratives mentioned above, chronological inconsistencies and classificatory misunderstandings, such as those already identified by various experts in pottery, architecture, sculpture etc, are to be expected. The proposed paper aims at investigating the extent of these narratives’ effect on the study of CG and CA terracottas. I propose to do that by focusing on figurine types that are generally though to present strong Aegean or Phoenician influence, particularly those considered as the newcomers’ trademarks, e.g. the figurines of the goddess with the uplifted arMs By taking a closer look at the development in these figurines’ classification and interpretation and placing it against the development of the archaeological narratives in question, I hope to provide a new way of looking at this important body of evidence.

Le bijou et la parure sur les figurines de terre cuite en Méditerranée orientale entre les VIe et IIIe s. av. J.-C.

Marioanna LOUKA

Ms Marioanna LOUKA (Paris/Athens)

84, EpaminondaS tr., Glyfada, GR-16674 Athens, GREECE.

<mlouka80@yahoo.com>

La diffusion des figurines féminines de terre cuite fut sans précédent parmi les sites méditerranéens grecs et orientaux : déesses, joueuses d’instruments musicaux, korés ou jeunes femmes, elles ont rempli sanctuaires, tombes et demeures en tant qu’offrandes religieuses, funéraires et décors embellissant de leur charme la vie quotidienne de leurs possesseurs.

De ce vaste champ de recherche, on a choisi de se concentrer sur les figurines porteuses de bijoux, à savoir celles qui affichent une plus grande tendance pour la parure. Boucles d’oreilles, pendentifs, colliers entiers, mais aussi bracelets de poignet, de bras ou même de cuisse, rapportés au corps dans la technique du pastillage surtout, constituent un intéressant ensemble de parure, renvoyant aussi à toute une garniture corporelle. À travers l’examen de ce corpus intéressant de déesses, korés ou femmes drapées, on s’intéressera aussi aux préférences que manifestent la promotion ou le rejet de tel ou tel type de bijou. On s’appuiera d’un côté sur l’iconographie de la céramique contemporaine, de l’autre sur la comparaison avec les bijoux réels – car les parures portées par nos figurines ont tendance à différer parfois considérablement de la réalité matérielle de ces objets.

Enfin, l’observation plus précise de ces figurines de terre cuite, provenant de plusieurs sites de la Méditerranée orientale (Priène, Myrina, Amathonte) ou appartenant à d’importantes collections de musées et de particuliers, va nous aider à mieux comprendre les types de parure reproduits par les artisans de cette époque importante entre l’archaïsme et le début de l’époque hellénistique. Elle servira aussi de point de départ pour quelques considérations plus générales, sur l’usage du bijou et sur ses significations socioéconomiques.

Ancient Terracotta Figurines in the Berlin Antikensammlung:

History of the Collection and Research Perspectives

Martin MAISCHBERGER

Dr Martin MAISCHBERGER (Berlin)

Antikensammlung, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Bodestr. 1-3, D-10178 Berlin, GERMANY.

<m.maischberger@smb.spk-berlin.de>

The Berlin Antikensammlung (Museum of Classical Antiquities) owns one of the world’s oldest and richest collections of ancient terracotta figurines from all parts of the Mediterranean and the Black sea region, ranging chronologically from the Aegean Bronze Age to Late Antiquity. Despite of the great importance of the collection both from a quantitative and a qualitative point of view, little systematic research has been carried on for a very long period of time. The most intensive research activities in the last decades concern the complex of figurines from Priene (Raeder 1983 and Rumscheid 2006) and the Hellenistic “Tanagra” figurines including the production of other centres like Myrina (Zimmer, Kriseleit 1994). Questions of iconography, production and authenticity have been at the centre of interest, based also on the results of scientific analyses provided by the Rathgen Laboratory in Berlin.

The recent presentation of a huge quantity of terracotta figurines in the context of the exhibition “Archaeology of the War” held in Moscow, containing art objects from German museums transferred to the former Soviet Union after World War II and still kept in Russia as war booty, has proved that many presumed losts of the Berlin terracotta collection still survive, waiting for restoration and scientific research. Due to the special conditions and the difficult political implications of the so-called “Beutekunst”, research concerning those objects will be carried on jointly by German and Russian colleagues. From a museological point of view, one of the primary tasks will consist in the compilation of an updated data base of the whole collection preserved both in Berlin and in Moscow: Until now, old inventory books without illustrations and the Winter catalogue of types are the only documentation for hundreds of objects.

Terrakotten aus der östlichen Nekropole von Amphipolis

Penelope MALAMA

Mrs Penelope MALAMA (Kavala)

18th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Erythrou Stavrou 17,

GR-65110 Kavala, GREECE.

<k-tsoukalas-physic@statuskv.gr>; <konstantina.panousi@hotmail.com>

Die Ausgrabungen der letzten Jahre in der östlichen Nekropole von Amphipolis (1999-2002) in Zusammenhang mit der Verbreitung der bestehenden Strasse, brachten eine große Zahl von Gräbern der klassischen, hellenistischen und römischen Zeit ans Licht.

Zwischen den Funden gibt es eine große Zahl von Terrakotten, die verschiedene Typen repräsentieren. Es handelt sich um weibliche und männliche Figuren, Götter und Göttinnen, Tänzerinnen, Knaben, Schauspieler, Masken, Tiere und andere. Der Zustand der meisten Terrakotten ist sehr gut und viele haben ihre Farben erhalten. Die verschiedenen Typen der Idolen beweisen, dass die Produktion der Terrakotten in Amphipolis nicht nur von Süd Griechenland aber auch von Klein Asien beeinflusst ist. Eine große Zahl von gleichen Idolen, die auch denselben Ton haben, lassen keine Zweifel zu, dass in Amphipolis Werkstätte für Koroplastik gab.

Aus den alten Grabungen an verschiedenen Stellen von Amphipolis sind nur einzelne Photos und krurze Grabungsberichte der Ausgräber in archäologischen Zeitschriften veröffentlicht. Eine systematische Veröffentlichung der Idolen steht noch aus.

Esquisse d’une femme mouvante:

Iconographie des danseuses voilées dans les terres cuites grecques

Nathalie MARTIN

Ms Nathalie MARTIN (Aix-en-Provence)

MMSH / CCJ, 5, rue du Château de l'Horloge, BP 647, F–13094 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 2, FRANCE.

<n.nathalie.martin@free.fr>

Au tournant des VIe-Ve siècles apparaît dans l'imagerie athénienne sur des vases à figures rouges un motif promis à une grande postérité dans tout le monde grec : la danseuse voilée. Je considère l'expression dans son aspect le plus large : comme une femme, en mouvement ou non, qui manipule un vêtement ample, le maintenant sur sa tête et/ou devant sa bouche. Né sur des vases, ce motif se développa par la suite dans tout le monde grec sur des petits bronzes, des terres cuites du style de Tanagra, mais également sur des bijoux (en or ou en terre cuite plaquée d'or), ou encore gravé sur des miroirs. Peu de pièces sont pourvues de contextes, ce qui complique d'autant plus l'enquête. Souvent issues de fouilles anciennes, elles sont entrées dans les collections des musées à la fin du XIXe voire au début du XXe siècle. Mais l'importance du sujet, tant quantitative que qualitative, est manifeste. Peu étudié jusqu'à présent en tant que tel, ce motif appartient indubitablement à la sphère du féminin, mais il est difficile, à travers la diversité des formes et des supports, d'en percevoir la fonction et la nature. Il semble constituer une passerelle entre plusieurs ambiances culturelles : si l’on danse voilée pour Déméter, Dionysos, Adonis ou d'autres encore, la danse constitue peut-être aussi un pont entre le sacré et le profane ! Négatif des mouvements et des expressions, le voile est l'objet du lien entre spectateurs et danseuses, entre le corps et les émotions... Toutefois un nombre considérable d'événements sociaux sont probablement groupés sous le titre contemporain de « mantle danse ». Il semble donc intéressant, au sein d'un sujet très vaste (support, technique, symbolisme), d'observer la transmission des modèles sur des supports différents et les modalités de cette transformation dans le temps.

L’étude d’un type : les sirènes de Myrina

Néguine MATHIEUX

Prof. Néguine MATHIEUX (Paris)

Musée du Louvre, Département des Antiquités grecques, étrusques et romaines,

F-75058 Paris Cedex 01, France.

<Neguine.Mathieux@louvre.fr>

Parmi le nombre considérable de figurines qu’a livré le site de Myrina en Asie Mineure, le type de la sirène se détache par la singularité de son iconographie, par la fréquence de son apparition sur le site et par son caractère fortement local. La signification explicitement funéraire de ce type, alliée à une certaine rudesse de style, l’a longtemps laissé dans l’ombre des Victoires ou des Érotes. Ces sirènes représentent pourtant une série pertinente pour l’étude des pratiques artisanales, du fait du nombre important d’exemplaires intacts ou complets provenant d’un même contexte archéologique.

La caractérisation de générations, de variantes et de versions à l’intérieur de cet ensemble homogène pose la question de l’évolution du type, cette dernière pouvant s’expliquer par des différences chronologiques ou la pluralité d’ateliers. Si des analyses de laboratoire récentes peuvent permettre de préciser les datations, l’examen stylistique s’avère, en revanche, incapable de résoudre les problèmes chronologiques. En effet, ce type semble attaché à une représentation volontairement archaïsante qui s’expliquerait par le lien étroit existant entre le choix de la forme plastique et l’iconographie. Cette singularité de la représentation de la sirène paraît d’autant plus évidente quand on examine les nombreuses figurines, aux styles très différents, trouvées à leur côté dans les tombes. Le contexte archéologique précis dans lequel elles ont été trouvées peut, en effet, être reconstitué grâce à l’étude d’archives inédites. Celle-ci permet aussi de réexaminer la fonction funéraire de ce type d’objets et sa signification.

Bibliograpie

N. Mathieux, « Les tanagréennes de Tanagra », et « Des tanagras au salon : un rêve bourgeois », dans Tanagra, Mythe et Archéologie, catalogue d’exposition, Paris, 2003, p. 186-187 et 294-297

N. Mathieux,, « Les fausses terres cuites antiques ou l'attrait de l'œuvre moderne », Vrai ou faux de l'antiquité classique, Dossiers d'archéologie 312 (avril 2006), p. 16-23.

N. Mathieux,, « Les déclinaisons de l'antique, les terres cuites d'Ingres », dans Ingres et l'antique, catalogue d’exposition, Montauban, Arles, 2006, p. 103-109.

N. Mathieux, « Des Tanagras à l'encan : La salle des ventes comme lieu de diffusion des objets archéologiques et des connaissances à la fin du XIXe siècle », dans Actes du Colloque, Tanagra, mythe et archéologie, Paris, décembre 2003, à paraître.

Terracotta Figurines from Seleucia on the Tigris:

the Deposits from the Archives Square

Roberta MENEGAZZI

Dr Roberta MENEGAZZI (Torino)

Università degli Studi di Torino, Dipartimento SAAST, via Giolitti 21/e, I-10123 Torino, ITALY.

<roberta.menegazzi@unito.it>

Founded at the end of the IVth century B.C. by Seleukos Nicator, the city of Seleucia on the Tigris, in modern Iraq, played a key role in the spread of the Hellenistic culture in the East. It was the first capital of the Seleucid kingdom and it was also the biggest Greek city of Asia. The city kept on flourishing also after the conquest of Mesopotamia by the Parthians. The political change didn’t stop the process of assimilation and re-elaboration of Greek cultural and artistic elements that Mesopotamian artists and craftsmen had already started during the Seleucid age.

Coroplastic art provides us with highly significant evidence of the above mentioned process. Thanks to the excavations carried on during the 20th century, about 12 000 terracotta figurines were found in Seleucia. This huge number of figurines supplied an enormous source of information and data: terracottas greatly point to the strong Greek cultural influence and, at the same time, to the vigour of the local, deeply-rooted tradition. This presentation aims to illustrate how the close encounter of different cultures contributed to producing a new technical, iconographic and artistic language that freely employed and reinvented Greek patterns in order to adapt them to the local taste, sensibility and spirituality.

Figurines de terre cuite de l’antique Aphytis

Vasiliki MISSAILIDOU-DESPOTIDOU

Mrs Vasiliki MISSAILIDOU-DESPOTIDOU (Thessaloniki)

Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, GR-54646 Thessaloniki, GREECE. <protocol@istepka.culture.gr>

La communication analyse un ensemble de figurines de terre cuite recueillies sur le site d’Aphytis, une des colonies de l’Égée septentrionale, sur la presqu’île de Cassandra en Chalcidique. Les figurines proviennent pour l’essentiel du mobilier de tombes de la ville antique ; il s’y ajoute un moule, recueilli dans la fouille d’une maison. D’après les parallèles, elles datent de la deuxième moitié du Ve s. et du IVe s. av. J.-C. et ont vraisemblablement été produites dans un atelier local, dont les installations n’ont cependant pas encore été repérées.

L’ensemble comporte surtout des protomés, des figures féminines assises et debout, des représentations de volatiles. Toutes les figurines sont tirées de moules ; certains types sont représentés par plusieurs exemplaires, parfois de générations différentes. Les thèmes sont puisés dans le répertoire de la coroplathie contemporaine de l’espace égéen. Si des points de vue iconographique et typologique l’influence des centres créateurs contemporains est manifeste, ces figurines ne s’en distinguent pas moins comme des créations locales. Les types se retrouvent dans les régions proches.

On s’interrogera également sur l’interprétation de certains types iconographiques, sur leur fonction comme éléments du mobilier de la tombe et donc comme objets à caractère funéraire.

Traduction: Arthur Muller

Terracotta Figurines from the Sanctuaries

of the Ancient Town of Kythnos, Cyclades

Christina MITSOPOULOU

Mrs Christina MITSOPOULOU (Athens/Volos)

Programme Herakleitos-EPEAEK 70/3/7233, University of Athens

Laboratory of Archaeology, Department of History, Archaeology & Social Anthropology,

University of Thessaly, Argonauton & Filellinon, Volos, GREECE.

<christinamitsopoulou@yahoo.com>

The ancient town of Kythnos, island of the western Cyclades of the Aegean, has been systematically investigated over the past decade1. Terracotta finds were located both during the extended surveying of the area within the city walls, as also from the excavation of an archaic sanctuary and temple. The selected material from two sanctuaries will be presented, and critically compared:

The first lot is constituted of numerous fragmentary surface finds from a votive deposit on the Acropolis2 of the ancient town. Although not excavated yet, this material can be identified safely as belonging to a Sanctuary of Demeter, and seems to have functioned under tight relations with Eleusis. Figurines represent a high percentage of the collected material, amidst rare cult vessels, a wide range of pottery and complex lighting equipment. Both the types of the figurines (hydriaphoroi, children –both girls and boys-, piglets etc.) as the other finds do indicate the specific character of the cult. Strong attic influence is observed, echoes of monumental sculptural types might be recognized, but local copies of the imported figurines are abundant. The variety of represented types is limited, but the local needs of the cult seem clearly defined by the types chosen and repeatedly copied. Given the rarity of located and identified Sanctuaries of Demeter from the surrounding Cycladic islands and Attica itself, this material appears as a rare testimony of coroplastic votive offerings from a Sanctuary of Demeter, flourishing during the classical period. Even though cult activities seem to go back at least to the early seventh century BC, figurines do not appear till the transition of the 6th to the 5th century BC.

A different situation will be presented from the second investigated sanctuary, on the Middle Terrace of the upper city. The archaic temple with its unplundered adyton and extended waste deposit has been excavated since 2002; the material is still under investigation, allowing just some preliminary observations. A clear identification of the cult is not yet surely achieved. Votive offerings strongly indicate a feminine recipient of the cult. Amidst the extremely abundant material, terracotta figurines do present a rather slim percentage. They range from the middle of the 6th century to the early Hellenistic period. Most frequent types are seated feminine figurines, usually attic. Other types, which are abundant on the acropolis, do sporadically appear in this second context, but their percentage is minimal in comparison.

The complete absence of early archaic handmade figurines from the site might now be suggested with certainty, during a period where imported ceramic, bone, lithic or metal finds indicate a broad range of fabrics and proveniences. Terracotta figurines seem to appear abundantly on the site when the island starts to be strongly provisioned by the attic market, towards the beginning of the 5th century BC. Attic importation, followed by local manufacture, use of coarse local clay and a culminating deterioration of moulds can be generally observed on the coroplastic material from Kythnos. It is highly fragmentary, but rarely traces of colouring are preserved.

Terracotta Figurines from Ancient lllyria

Belisa MUKA

Ms Belisa MUKA (Lille/Tirana)

Instituti Arkeologjik, Sheshi “Nënë Tereza”, Tirana, ALBANIA.

<b_muka@yahoo.com>; <belisa.muka@univ-lille3.fr>

A considerable number of terracotta figurines have been found in ancient Illyria (modern Albania) over the past 90 years, in different archaeological contexts as well as spordic finds. Their presence testifies figurines’ great popularity in cultic and domestic activities in antiquity.

The assemblage that will constitute the body of this presentation (material from diferent sites of Albania, situated on the coast line and in the hinterland) will be considered in the light of a wider body of material from the Mediterranean area. From this point of view, the purpose of this presentation will be focused on giving a general view of the local coroplastic tradition and to establish some trade patters which determined the stylistic influences acting on it and place the coroplastic tradition of the sites, where the terracotta figurines have been found, in a wider Mediterranean koine of production and practice.

Introduction II :

La recherche sur la coroplathie classique : thèmes et problèmes

Arthur MULLER

Prof. Arthur MULLER (Lille)

Université Charles-de-Gaulle – Lille 3, HALMA-IPEL – UMR 8164 (CNRS, Lille 3, MCC)

Histoire, Archéologie, Littérature des Mondes Anciens

BP 60149, F-59653 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, FRANCE.

<arthur.muller@univ-lille3.fr>

Cette introduction rappellera les orientations de la recherche récente sur la coroplathie antique. Elle s’intéressera ensuite aux problématiques de ce colloque et exposera, pour chacune des grandes directions de réflexion qui ont été proposées aux participants, quelques éléments de réflexion et de discussion, en les illustrant d’exemples précis :

– production (statut des ateliers, rapports avec d’autres artisanats, techniques) et diffusion (circulation des objets : figurines et/ou moules, production dérivée, imitation ; constitution de koinès) ;

– iconographie et fonction ; la question récurrente : « qui est représenté dans la petite plastique » doit-elle recevoir une réponse unique ou au contraire variable selon les contextes : votif, funéraire et « domestique » et même suivant les divinités et les lieux ?

L’Artémision d’Ephèse :

les offrandes votives en terre cuite de l’époque archaïque

Ulrike MUSS, Martine DEWAILLY

Dr Ulrike MUSS (Vienna)

Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut, Franz-Klein-Gasse 1, A-1190 Vienna, AUSTRIA.

<ulrike.muss@oeai.at>

Dr Martine DEWAILLY (Rome)

Ecole Française de Rome, Piazza Navona, 62, I-00186 Rome, ITALY.

<martine.dewailly@efrome.it>

À l’Artémision d’Éphèse, les offrandes votives en terre cuite, trouvées dans les fouilles anciennes de D.W. Hogarth et les fouilles récentes d’A. Bammer, sont peu nombreuses comparativement aux plus prestigieuses offrandes en or, bronze, ambre et ivoire. Cependant, elles comptent, surtout aux époques les plus anciennes, quelques exemplaires de grande importance cultuelle. À l’époque archaïque, où se développe une importante production coroplastique dans toutes les cités grecques pourvues de grands sanctuaires, l’Artémision d’Éphèse ne témoigne pas de l’offre fréquente de statuettes votives en terre cuite, importées ou de fabrication locale, produites en série, à l’exception, au VIIe siècle, d’un type de figurine féminine, celui dénommée par Hogarth « l’Artémis éphésienne ».

Le seul autre type d’offrande votive, que l’on peut considérer un groupe typologique, est constitué par les vases plastiques, nombreux mais tous différents, chaque type étant présent en un seul exemplaire ; leur production couvre la première moitié du VIe siècle.

Nous examinerons d’abord l’ensemble des terres cuites trouvées à l’Artémision et datées du VIIe au milieu du VIe siècle ; puis, nous tenterons de comprendre le contraste que présente la relative abondance des figurines dites de « l’Artémis éphésienne » et des vases plastiques. Cela nous amènera à examiner les particularités de ces deux ensembles et à tenter de comprendre leur valeur dans le culte d’Artémis à l’époque archaïque.

Terracotta Figurines from Ithaca:

Between Local Production and Imported Ware

Joannis MYLONOPOULOS

Prof. Joannis MYLONOPOULOS

Theorie und Geschichte antiker Religionen, Religionswissenschaft,

Philosophische Fakultät der Universität Erfurt, Postfach 90 02 21, D-99105 Erfurt, GERMANY

and Nordhäuser Str. 63, D-99089 Erfurt, GERMANY.

<joannis.mylonopoulos@uni-erfurt.de>

Die britischen Grabungen an der sog. Polis-Grotte und die französischen Grabungen an verschiedenen Plätzen auf der Insel Ithaka haben zahlreiche figürliche Terrakotten ans Tageslicht gefördert, die bislang nur durch Vorberichte bekannt sind. Eine erneute Untersuchung des Materials mit der Erlaubnis der BSA und der EFA ermöglicht eine aktuelle Auseinandersetzung mit Fragen der Produktion, des ikonographischen Repertoires und der Verwendung der figürlichen Terrakotten in religiös konnotierten Kontexten. Matrizengleiche Objekte aus unterschiedlichem Ton deuten z.B. darauf hin, dass sowohl fertige Produkte wie auch Matrizen zur lokalen Produktion importiert wurden, während die deutliche Konzentration, vor allem ab der hellenistischer Zeit, auf weibliche Statuetten und Protomen (darunter häufig solche der Artemis-Selene) die Frage nach den göttlichen Empfängern solcher Terrakotten aufwirft. Beim Befund aus der sog. Polis-Höhle im Norden der Insel ergeben sich (teilweise) Antworten auf die Fragen nach der religiösen Bedeutung und Verwendung solcher Terrakotten unmittelbar aus der Tatsache, dass Weihinschriften sowohl Odysseus als auch die Nymphen als Kultempfänger in hellenistischer Zeit nennen. Somit erscheint allerdings eine sichere Zuweisung der Funde an einen bestimmten Kultempfänger ausschließlich für die hellenistischen Votivobjekte möglich. Die Bestimmung der/des Kultempfänger(s) für die Zeit vor dem 3. Jh. muss durch die Auswertung und Interpretation der Funde selbst erfolgen. Die Verbindungen sowohl mit den Nymphen als auch mit der Welt der homerischen Epen lassen sich auch durch die Bilderwelt der in der genannten Grotte gefundenen Terrakotten bestätigen: Kleinformatige Reliefs thematisieren tanzende Nymphen, aber auch die Entscheidung des Paris. Identische Objekte aus mehreren Plätzen (meistens Nymphengrotten) machen die Existenz einer Werkstatt sehr wahrscheinlich, welche die gesamte Insel mit Objekten für den alltäglichen Kultbetrieb belieferte. Interessant erscheint auch der Vergleich mit wichtigen Fundorten ähnlicher Terrakotten aus Nymphengrotten auf der benachbarten Insel Kefalonia: Obwohl das Repertoire fast identisch ist (Frauenprotomen und sog. Nymphenreliefs) gibt es kaum Exemplare, die matrizengleich sind.

Insgesamt werden die angesprochenen Aspekte figürlicher Terrakotten auf Ithaka in ihrer diachronen Entwicklung betrachtet werden.

Down-to-earth in Arkadia.

Terracotta Figurines from a Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore in Tegea, Peloponnese

Alexander NAGEL

Mr Alexander NAGEL (Ann Arbor, MI/Athens)

Interdepartmental Program in Classical Art and Archaeology, University of Michigan, Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, 434 South State Street, Ann Arbor MI 48109-1390, USA.

<aleos@umich.edu>

One of the obvious “minefields” in coroplastic studies on the Peloponnese is the dilemma with the large number of unpublished excavation material and the spread of the material in a large number of museuMs While the preparation for a new exhibition of terracotta figurines in the collection of the Athens National Museum in 2008 is in full progress, the curators have to deal with manifold problems of lost contexts, and at present, almost any “exact dating” of Inner-Peloponnesian material is nearly impossible.

With the example of large quantities of terracotta figurines that left the plain of ancient Tegea after the first excavations at the height of Aghios Sostis in 1862 to be sold on the European art-market in the late 19th and early 20th century the modern archaeologist working on the cultic and coroplastic landscape of Arkadia faces a serious problem. It became nearly impossible to comment on the coroplastic industries of ancient Arkadia due to the large spread of the “wandering figurines”, resulting in lost contexts. Tegea on the other hand, at the crossroads of various trade routes in the centre of the Peloponnese, is important, not at least when studying figurines from the Inner-Peloponnese but also in relation to the surrounding regions like the Argolid and Lakonia. For my M.A. thesis I was able to conduct research at various museums and collections in Greece, London, Cambridge, Paris, Copenhagen and Berlin. I recollected, analysed, and catalogued the material from Aghios Sostis for the very first time in one ensemble.

My paper will focus on the series of derivatives I was able to detect and presents further thoughts on the coroplastic industries from Tegea in the Archaic and Classical period. Furthermore, the iconographical repertoire of the figurines from Aghios Sostis has sometimes been taken as good evidence for Thesmophoria in Archaic and Classical Arcadia, attested by Herodotus as at his time being celebrated “only among the Arkadians” (Hdt. 2.171). The main question to be addressed in my paper, however, is: what are the chances and perspectives of coroplastic studies in Arkadia in the beginning of the 3rd millennium AD?

Retrospectives and Perspectives. The Present State of Research on

Terracotta Figurines from a Votive Bothros in Stratos, Greece.

Alexander NAGEL

Mr Alexander NAGEL (Ann Arbor, MI/Athens)

Interdepartmental Program in Classical Art and Archaeology, University of Michigan, Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, 434 South State Street, Ann Arbor MI 48109-1390, USA.

<aleos@umich.edu>

This paper presents the results of the first three study seasons on material from a votive bothros, excavated close to the ancient city of Stratos in Akarnania on the Greek mainland, in 1994.

In 1993, members of an archaeological field survey discovered large quantities of fragmented terracotta figurines in a freshly ploughed field. In the following year, the Greek Archaeological Service conducted rescue excavations resulting in the dis-covery of a bothros filled with thousands of votive terracotta figurines, pottery, metal objects and other material. My paper will provide a first overview and outline the goals and methods of the on-going post-excavation analysis. I will argue that only a combined study of the figurines with the large amount of pottery, bones and metal objects can help in refining both, the chronology and the original context of the material before it was buried in the bothros. One of the main objectives of my paper is therefore to open the debate on clarifying and justifying the approach taken.

The majority of the pottery in the bothros dates from the late 5th to the 3rd centuries BC. A comprehensive analysis of the pottery in combination with the figurines will not only provide interesting insights into Akarnanian cult rituals, but also throw fresh light on the coroplastic industries of one of the regions on the Greek mainland, where the study of terracotta figurines has hardly yet began. Among the figurines, we find Apollo with a lyre, Artemis but also hares and other iconographic motives. But what can we learn about the religious rituals of the population of Classical Stratos? In order to achieve better results on the coroplastic industry in Akarnania, I will also introduce moulds excavated more recently at the ancient agora of Stratos. In the end, an important gap in our knowledge of a virtually unknown region of Greece can be filled.

Terracotta Figurines in the Cemetery of Ancient Akanthos

Olympia NASIOKA

Ms Olympia NASIOKA (Thessaloniki)

Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, GR-54646 Thessaloniki, GREECE. <protocol@istepka.culture.gr>

The cemetery of ancient Akanthos is being excavated since 1973 and covers a period between the 7th century BC and the 4th century AD. It occupies the coast Al, area of the modern settlement of Ierissos, of the peninsula of Chalkidiki, and counts almost 11 900 graves. A great number of them (less than the 50 %) contained offerings, but amongst them no more than 8 % contained terracottas, chronologically covering all the period during which the area was used as a cemetery.

A large number of terracottas were discovered in child graves. The study concerns terracotta figurines, dated or not, out of burial groups, made either using one or more moulds, either hand made. Hand made figurines represent a smaller group, related to those made out of mould.

The technique and iconography of the figurines follow the widely known types, using prototypes or simple imitation by modelling new prototypes directly inspired by existing products. Local craftsmen and their activities are being detected from few fragments of moulds and the ceramic kilns, situated in the industrial area of the ancient city.

Generally, terracotta figurines of Akanthos can be divided into the following categories:

    - female figurines

    - male figurines

    - children

    - animals

    - various figurines

Among others, the study traces specific coroplastic items related to the moulding process and derivative production.

Terracotta Figures from Kharayeb:

Technical, Stylistic and Iconographical Aspects

Ida OGGIANO, Ilaria MONTIS

Mrs Ida OGGIANO (Monterotondo Stazione)

Istituto di Studi sulle Civiltà italiche e del Mediterraneo Antico del CNR Roma (Aera della Ricerca di Roma), c/o Via Salaria km. 29,500 C.P. 10, I-00016 Monterotondo Stazione (RM), ITALY.

<ioggiano@hotmail.com>

Mrs Ilaria MONTIS (Pisa)

Università degli Studi di Pisa, Dipartimento scienze storiche del mondo antico, Via Galvani 1,

I-56126 Pisa, ITALY.

<iilaria@ilportalesardo.it>

The Kharayeb site, in South Lebanon between Tyr and Adlun, is an interesting example of the cultural transition from the Phoenician to the Greek-Roman period. Thousands of terracotta figures dating from the end of 4th to the 1st BC have been found in the favissa of a small rectangular building excavated by M. Chéahb and B. Kaoukabani.

Only some of terracotta figures were published at the time of the findings, and classified primarily in two groups according to style and iconography: “Egyptianizing or Oriental” or Grecian (god and goddesses, dancers and musicians, children with animals).

A project of collaboration is under way at the moment between CNR Italy and Direction Générale des Antiquités du Liban, to re-examine the archaeological site, starting with the study of the already mentioned figures now kept in the storeroom of the National Museum of Beirut.

The first result of this project will be presented at this Colloque International. Particular attention will be focused on the technical, stylistic and iconographical aspects that will give some information concerning the cult practiced in the sacred area of Kharayeb and that reflects the complex interaction between western Hellenistic culture and the coastal Levant.

Klassische und hellenistische Terrakotten aus Miletos

Fikret ÖZCAN

Mr Fikret ÖZCAN (Bochum)

Ruhr-Universität-Bochum, Institut für archäologische Wissenschaften, Universitätsstr. 150, D-44801 Bochum, GERMANY; and Kluckstr. 31, D-10785 Berlin, GERMANY.

<Fikret.Oezcan@ruhr-uni-bochum.de>

Bei den Grabungen im späten 19. und frühen 20. Jh. wurden in Milet nur wenige figürliche Terrakotten, in Priene dagegen zahlreiche und auch qualitätsvolle gefunden. Mit der Publikation der Priener Funde durch Wiegand und Schrader trat die Nachbarstadt Milets als Zentrum der Koroplastik in den Vordergrund. Die spärlichen Funde figürlicher Terrakotten, die bis in die 80er Jahre in Milet zutage gefördert wurden, untermauerten dieses Bild.

1979 begannen in Milet die Ausgrabungen im Demeterheiligtum auf Humeitepe. Der Tempel war zwar erst in hellenistischer Zeit errichtet worden, doch den Funden nach muss der Kult an diesem Ort mindestens bis auf das 2. Viertel des 5. Jhs. zurückgehen. Die große Zahl der bis jetzt gefundenen figürlichen Terrakotten, zumal mehrere aus gleicher Form stammende darunter sind – insbesondere Wasserträgerinnen aus früh- und hochklassischer Zeit –, haben auch den früheren Funden ihr Stigma des Zufalls genommen und Milet als Ort bedeutender Produktionsstätte in Erscheinung treten lassen. Funde aus verschiedenen Orten, wie etwa Westlich des Bouleuterion im Stadtzentrum oder die milesischen Heroa, können jetzt in einem neuen Zusammenhang und als Typus, in einer bestimmten Funktion und an einen bestimmten Ort gebunden, betrachtet werden. Jetzt kann eine Beziehung zwischen figürlichen Terrakotten aus dem Athenaheiligtum aus den früheren Grabungen vor 1980 und denen aus dem Demeterheiligtum nach 1980 bis in spätklassische Zeit hinein verfolgt werden. Ab 1989 lieferten weitere Grabungen im Aphroditeheiligtum auf Zeytintepe neben Keramik eine bisher ungeahnte Anzahl figürlichen Terrakotten aus archaischer und auch aus klassischer und hellenistischer Zeit.

Die figürlichen Terrakotten klassischer Zeit aus dem Aphroditeheiligtum sind auf gewisse Typen, überwiegend auf Protomen, beschränkt und in den anderen Heiligtümern der Stadt nicht belegt. Bei dem Auftreten gleicher Typen in diesem Heiligtum sind eine einheitliche Machart und die gleiche Beschaffenheit des Tons zu beobachten, was bei den klassischen Protomen eine spezialisierte Werkstatt voraussetzt. An den Funden vom Zeytintepe lässt sich aufzeigen, wie beispielsweise eine Protome auch außerhalb des Heiligtums als Vorlage diente oder umgeändert wurde.

Zum Ruhm des Aphroditeheiligtums in hellenistischer Zeit – zumindest wie er der Dichtung Theokrits zu entnehmen ist – kann die Qualität der figürlichen Terrakotten nicht beitragen, aber vom Typus her sind sie ungewohnt und ein Beleg für die Existenz gleicher Typen gleichzeitig im Demeter- und Aphroditeheiligtum in hellenistischer Zeit.

Weitere im Beitrag zu behandelnde Punkte sind die Wiederaufnahme der koroplastischen Produktion nach der Zerstörung Milets durch die Perser, verbunden mit der Frage nach den Werkstätten. Des Weiteren geht es um Abhängigkeit und Autonomie in der Typenbildung in klassischer Zeit, um die milesiche Rezeption der Tanagräer und auch um Berührungspunkte mit anderen koroplastischen Zentren.

A Group of Coroplastic Finds From Sparta

Anastasia PANAGIOTOPOULOU

Mrs Anastasia PANAGIOTOPOULOU (Sparta)

Hellenic Ministry of Culture, Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, K. Palaiologou 133, GR-23100 Sparta, GREECE

<anastapanag@yahoo.gr>

This paper aims at presenting figurines, plaques and protomes of clay recently discovered in Sparta during salvage excavations. Diverse types of figurines depicting Artemis are discerned as well as plaques also known from excavations in other Lakonian sanctuaries. Of particular interest are the protomes which do not comprise typical finds in the excavations at Sparta. Comparisons will be made with similar finds from Sparta and Lakonia and it will be attempted to identify more products of the same workshop. It is noteworthy that another group of terracottas depicting Artemis may belong to the same eponymous workshop. Finally, it shall be endeavoured to locate the sanctuary whose bothros produced the largest part of finds under discussion.

Squatting Comasts. Itinerant Iconographies and Plastic Vases

Antonella PAUTASSO

Mrs Antonella PAUTASSO (Catania)

IBAM CNR – Sede di Catania, Via di Sangiuliano 262, I-95125 Catania, ITALY.

<a.pautasso@ibam.cnr.it>

Plastic vases made in form of the so called “squatting comasts” occur in sanctuaries and graves along a span of time corresponding to the first half of the 6th century BC. Generally, the same definition includes the two chief producers areas of the squatting comasts: Corinth and the Eastern Greece. The two manufactures can be easily distinguished on the ground of some formal and technical features, and of a short chronological décalage. In spite of some remarkable differences, the two productions are strictly connected, and the Eastern Greeks squatting comasts, made in the two techniques Grenade and terrecuite (after the generally accepted definitions), are new creations clearly depending on Corinthian models, but mixing and combining them with iconographical features coming from other creatures of the Eastern Greek repertoire.

Starting from the earlier examples in the Protocorinthian – Ancient Corinthian period, this paper intends to reconsider the roots and history of this iconography and its different meanings in Corinthian and Eastern Greek productions. Finally, the study of the Eastern Greek examples, made in the two different techniques, will focus on a reconsideration of the relations between the so called Grenade group and a part of the terracotta production.

Les représentations de divinités féminines ailées

dans la production des coroplathes de Myrina

Virginie PERDRISOT

Ms Virginie PERDRISOT (Paris)

Institut National du Patrimoine, 2, rue Vivienne, F-75002 Paris, FRANCE.

<vperdrisot@club-internet.fr>

Si les travaux d’Edmond Pottier et de Salomon Reinach sur la technique de fabrication des terres cuites de Myrina, lors des premières campagnes de fouilles en 1882, ont servi de bases à toutes les études postérieures sur le sujet, ces recherches initiales n’ont cessé d’être affinées. En témoignent depuis 1977, les nouvelles analyses poursuivies dans les laboratoires du Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France (C2RMF) à Paris, du Centre de Recherche Interdisciplinaire d’Archéologie Analytique (CRIA) de Bordeaux, du Démocritos d’Athènes. Ainsi en 2002-2004, un programme de recherche dirigé par Violaine Jeammet au C2RMF fut consacré à l’approfondissement des recherches sur la polychromie des terres cuites de Myrina et de Tanagra, tandis que le nouvel Archéopôle de Bordeaux consacrait, lors de son inauguration à l’automne 2005, une part importante de son espace d’exposition à la présentation des Victoires de Myrina appartenant aux collections universitaires. En nous appuyant sur les apports scientifiques récents, nous tenterons de tisser des liens entre les terres cuites myrinéennes représentant Niké et Psyché et les types iconographiques repérés pour ces deux divinités sur d’autres supports. Se posera alors la question de la transmission des schémas et de la diffusion des modèles artistiques. L’étude comparative avec certains exemples notamment athéniens et tarentins, issus de la grande statuaire, des décors architecturaux et de la peinture de vases, sera la méthode employée pour mesurer la part de l’héritage et de l’innovation chez les coroplathes de Myrina. Pertinent non seulement dans l’appréciation de l’évolution du traitement iconographique, le choix du corpus des divinités ailées répondra à des questions sur les procédés techniques de production. Le problème des ateliers de Myrina, soulevé par le nombre très élevé des signatures de coroplathes, sera éclairci par l’analyse spécifique des ailes comme marques de fabrique. Si les ailes du « Coroplathe des Victoires » caractérisées par le procédé de fixation, mais aussi par la finesse de leur traitement sont bien connues, nous étudierons également les signes inscrits sur les ailes servant à les ajuster aux épaules des figurines, ainsi que les marques apparentes : trous, fentes ou collages. L’hypothèse émise par E. Pottier et S. Reinach, selon laquelle ces ailes auraient été offertes au mort comme symboles de l’âme indépendamment de statuettes interroge leur signification idéologique dans un contexte funéraire. L’interprétation religieuse voyant dans ces figures des génies protecteurs du mort sera examinée à travers une confrontation avec les mythes des Sirènes et de l’Astarté orientale, dans une réflexion sur l’envol de l’âme dans l’au-delà.

Les figurines en terre cuite hellenistiques de l'antique Bergé à Serres

Catherina PERISTERI

Mrs Catherina PERISTERI (Serres)

28th Ephoria of the Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Rakttzi 10-12, Serres, GREECE.

<elektrazog@yahoo.com>

Les fouilles récentes (de 2005) dans le Nord de la région de Serres ont mis au jour une ville antique, Bergè, dont le site a été occupé de l’époque archaïque jusqu’à l’époque romaine. Le mobilier funéraire de la nécropole de l’époque hellénistique comportait un grand nombre d’objets en or, en argent et en terre cuite. La communication se propose d’étudier les figurines en terre cuite provenant de tombes rectangulaires creusées dans la terre. Il s'agit de figurines féminines drapées ou nues, de figurines masculines, d’Éros ailés : elles sont en général de bonne qualité et dans un bon état de conservation.

Traduction: Arthur Muller

Pre-Roman Terracotta Figurines from Bulgaria:

Find Context and Interpretation

Kalina PETKOVA

Ms Kalina PETKOVA (Sofia)

Department of Archaeology

Sofia University St Kliment Ohridski, 15 Tsar Osvoboditel Blvd., Sofia, BULGARIA

<kalina.petkova@gmail.com>

This paper highlights the types of find contexts of terracotta figurines, and examines different interpretations regarding their significance and their presence at particular sites. As a group of objects, they may be divided in two: those connected with cult or burial ritual, and those of a profane character such as those found in dwellings.

The first group has been recorded in necropoleis as well as pits found both in urban centres like Sboryanovo, and in the so-called ‘pit sanctuaries’.

One of the aims of the study in examining this kind of object in the context of a sanctuary is to identify the rules governing the placing of a single type of object, which suggests the functions of the divinity to whom the gifts are given. Parallels are drawn with sites of similar character discovered in Greece, Russia, and Italy, where the level of research on terracotta figurines is quite advanced.

Terracottas are also found in large numbers in burial contexts. The majority are found in necropoleis situated on the Black Sea coast, where contact with the Hellenic world was most extensive. Besides being found in graves, these objects are also recorded in places marking commemorative rites such as ritual hearths. Sometimes, necropoleis are characterised by the type of burial feature – for example, in cases where wooden sarcophagi are found, only the numerous terracotta figurines which adorned the sarcophagus remain. This type of burial is characteristic for the territory of Odessos, where the largest collection of terracottas of this type is found. Of particular interest is the fact that a limited number of terracottas are recovered from burial features found under tumuli. Examples come from the Mogilanska tumulus near Vratsa, the Mushovitsa tumulus from the Douvanli necropolis, and tumulus Number 1 near Lake Koprinka, which contained three completely different types of figurines. The examination of types of burial features (graves in all their variations, the use of sarcophagi and graves in tumuli) may provide evidence regarding the ethnic character of the burials, as well as influences on burial practices in Thrace.

In Kabyle, terracotta figurines are also found on ritual hearths, which is not a phenomenon isolated to the territory of Thrace. Similar examples are known from sanctuaries found in present-day Greece and southern Italy.

During the Late Iron Age, terracottas were often used as interior elements in dwellings. They were attached to walls, as evidenced by the large square openings on their backs. In such cases, they would have served a different, non-cultic function to the figurines which are identifiable by their attributes as representing divinities. These profane figurines are most often women without particular attributes, and this makes the interpretation of them as divinities problematic. Similar examples are known from outside the territory of Thrace, where figurines are sometimes of an erotic nature, for example, those found in situ in Pompeii in niches dug into the wall.

Etude des figurines de terre cuite découvertes au Létôon, Lycie

Sophie PICAUD

Dr Sophie PICAUD (Argelès-Gazost)

Lycée René Billères, 6 avenue Marcel Lemettre BP 103, F-65402 Argelès-Gazost, FRANCE

<sophie.picaud@club-internet.fr>

Le lot de figurines fragmentaires trouvées au Létôon derrière le socle de la base des Arruntii pose diverses questions:

S’agit-il d’un lot appartenant à un type iconographique homogène comme des cavaliers ou des orantes et déposés dans ce lieu

S’agit-il de fragments qui ont été déplacés et qui proviendraient d’une favissa. En effet, les trois temples sont assez proches et il est évident qu’il existe quelque part une favissa.

Etude des figurines de terre cuite découvertes à Beyrouth

Sophie PICAUD

Dr Sophie PICAUD (Argelès-Gazost)

Lycée René Billères, 6 avenue Marcel Lemettre BP 103, F-65402 Argelès-Gazost, FRANCE

<sophie.picaud@club-internet.fr>

Lors des fouilles du centre ville de Beyrouth par l’IFAPO, une centaine de fragments de figurines de terre cuite ont été découvertes. Pour la chronologie, la période s’étend de l’époque perse achéménide jusqu’à l’époque romaine. Plusieurs types sont présents avec des influences égyptiennes et grecques.

Le matériel provient d’un quartier d’habitation, ce qui pose le problème de la destination des objets.

Cette étude va permettre de donner une vision de la coroplathie à Beyrouth bien que le matériel ne soit pas très important.

The Dating of the Earliest Mould-Made Terracottas Reconsidered

Oliver PILZ

Mr Oliver PILZ (Athens)

Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Abteilung Athen, 1 Fidiou St., GR-10678 Athens, GREECE

<pilz@athen.dainst.org>

It is commonly believed that in the early seventh century BC Greek craftsmen introduced from the Near East the use of moulds for the production of terracotta figurines and relief plaques. This new technique, allowing the mass-production of terracottas, seems to appear first in Crete and spread from there in connection with the Daedalic style all over the Greek world. The communis opinio is that the introduction of the new technique was closely linked with the first appearance of the iconographic scheme of the so-called Naked Goddess, which clearly depends on Near Eastern prototypes.

In this paper, I will suggest that in Crete, at least, the use of the mould was already known before the first plaques depicting nude female figures appeared. By re-examining the archaeological evidence, I will argue that the earliest Cretan terracottas in the new technique were actually produced in the Late Geometric period. Although figures on early mould-made relief plaques from Praisos show common stylistic features with figures in Attic Late Geometric vase painting, J. Boardman dated these plaques to the mid-seventh century, claiming that “we should expect the similar Greek plaques with facing nudes to be the earliest of the series”. Further evidence from Knossos and Gortyn will strengthen the case of an earlier dating of the plaques from Praisos and provide additional support for the suggestion that moulds were already in use during the Late Geometric period.

Production and Diffusion of Terracotta Figurines in Thebes (Boeotia)

during the Hellenistic Period

Marcella PISANI

Ms Marcella PISANI (Rome/Vittoria)

Via Ricasoli, 164, I-97019 Vittoria (RG), ITALY

<samidalimaro@hotmail.com>

Important new data was, recently, collected from the excavations of an area 2 km north-east of Thebes carried out by the 9th Ephoria of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities of Beotia, under the guidance of V. Aravantinos. The excavation of this site discovered a large necropolis with many burial sites and funeral enclosures. During the Hellenistic and Early Roman period (last quarter of the 4th c. BC - 1st c. AD), this cemetery was frequently used and many graves were often reused. However, although there were many Hellenistic graves at the site, only around 30 % contained terracotta figurines. Most are of common types, but there are several remarkable exceptions.

The aim of this paper is to present the most interesting data that the research on Hellenistic terracotta material has revealed. The study, in this case, is underpinned by the contextual data for the pottery and the other materials associated with the terracotta figurines. Typology, chronology and technical features allow us to acquire more informations about the circulation of moulds and products in the site, in order to reconstruct the commercial routes of products (either moulds or replicas), and to compare these results with what we know about the history of Thebes.

At the end of the 4th and the beginning of the 3rd century BC, together with imported products and figurines of high quality that, usually, are replicas that are strictly based on archetypes created in Athens or Tanagra, there are types that were created locally. During this period, there seems to be active workshops in Thebes that were included in a circuit of products dealing mainly with central Greece, but not restricted to that area. After a period of crisis in the second half of the 3rd century BC, in which we see the decrease of the use of clay figurines in the graves, the second half of the century apparently marks a revival of this trend. In this period the Theban workshops were still active and included in a trade larger than the commercial circuit of the first half of the 3rd century BC. These workshops, judging by the few imported and bad-quality products of the second half of the 2nd century BC, seem to have closed their activity in this period.

Figurines isiaques en terre cuite d’Asie mineure

Jean-Louis PODVIN

Dr Jean-Louis PODVIN (Boulogne-sur-Mer)

Université du Littoral Côte d’Opale, 34, Grande Rue, BP 751,

F-62321 Boulogne-sur-Mer Cedex, FRANCE.

<jean-louis.podvin@univ-littoral.fr>; <jean-louis.podvin@laposte.net>

À partir de la période hellénistique et pendant la domination romaine, les cultes isiaques (c’est-à-dire relatifs à Isis, Sarapis, Harpocrate, Apis et aux autres sunnaoi théoi) ont connu un réel succès hors d’Égypte, dans le monde méditerranéen oriental. En Asie mineure, les symboles isiaques fleurissent sur les monnaies des cités, des temples leur sont édifiés ; mais qu’en est-il de la religiosité populaire ? Comme en Égypte, les statuettes de terre cuite constituent des témoignages de celle-ci. Les représentations sont-elles les mêmes que dans la vallée du Nil ? Les figurines sont-elles importées ou produites sur place ? Quels dieux sont mis à l’honneur et sont-ils les mêmes que sur les inscriptions ? Autant de questions auxquelles nous proposons d’apporter des éléments de réponse.

Lost and Forgotten?

On the Scientific Value of Terracottas from 19th Century Antiques Collections

Barbara POROD

Ms Barbara POROD (Graz)

Landesmuseum Joanneum, Provinzialrömische Sammlung & Antikenkabinett, Eggenberger Allee 90, A-8020 Graz, AUSTRIA.

<barbara.porod@museum-joanneum.at>

The Landesmuseum Joanneum was founded 1811 in Graz (Austria) when Archduke Johann (1782-1859) donated his scientific and historical collections to “educate the youth of Styria”. The museum continually expanded through bequests and acquisitions. Today it harbours 4,5 million objects in 19 departments.

The antiques collection dates back to the 19th century when travellers donated various objects from the Mediterranean, from Egyptian mummies to Corinthian aryballoi. More than 400 unpublished coroplastic and architectural terracottas from the 6th to the 3rd century BC form part of the collection.

Due to their material value, terracottas were not always treated well. Hidden in boxes, the vast majority of them has never been shown to the public. It can be argued that these objects have lost their scientific value because of their acquisition as “souvenirs”. The paper will focus both on the objects themselves and the methods of research applied.

Votive Terracotta Figurines and Clay Moulds

from Deposits in Sanctuaries and Workshops of Corfu

Kalliope PREKA–ALEXANDRI

Mrs Kalliope PREKA–ALEXANDRI (Athens)

Archaelogical Service, A’ Ephoria of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, 2-4 Makrygianni

GR-11742 Athens, GREECE

and: 50 Irakleous Street, Kallithea, GR-17671 Athens, GREECE

<alexandr@unipi.gr>

The ancient city of Corfu had a great tradition in making terracotta figurines of various size, which were passed to the interior and exterior markets during the second half of the 6th and the first half of the 5th centuries BC. Terracotta figurines were discovered in Corfu in deposits of rustic and domestic shrines as well as workshops. The width of typology of the terracotta figurines covers the devotional needs of various goddesses of the island – Artemis and Hera –, but also of other unknown goddesses of exterior markets, the substance of which is close to the goddesses of the island. In the large ceramics workshop of Figareto, Corfu, in the labour districts of the city, were found deposits of clay moulds, from which terracotta figurines were made. The typology of the moulds is quite often similar to that of the terracottas discovered in sanctuary deposits; in the same workshop was found the statuette of a kore, which had been used as an archetype for making the multiple type of mould clays we often meet in Corfu, as well as a devotional statue of the workshop. There were also discovered certain moulds, which did not seem to have been used for making terracotta figurines in the interior market, as it appears from the excavation findings so far. Probably in this case, the moulds had been made to serve the exterior market of Corfu, the markets of Apulia and South Illyria. The terracotta figurines and the moulds are made from local clay, which has been analyzed as to its composition and firing temperature. From the comparison between terracotta figurines and moulds it becomes clear that certain types formed a whole series starting from the size of 60 cm and reaching about 8 cm. Moreover, the technological characteristics of the terracotta figurines clearly appear, such as their elaboration after been removed from the mould, the way mould clays were used, the decoration colours, and so on. Also the attributes which the moulds bear, show the substance of the goddess to whom they were dedicated, while other elements show the various ceremonies done in honour of the specific goddess.

Transmission and Continuity in the Ancient World:

Questions Concerning the Lifespan of Two Cypro-Phoenician Figurine Types

Michael PRESS

Mr Michael PRESS (Cambridge, MA)

Semitic Museum, 6 Divinity Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

<press@fas.harvard.edu>.

In the mid-1st millennium BCE, two basic figurine types of Cypro-Phoenician origin predominate throughout the Levant: the standing female, with mold-made head and hollow (or sometimes solid) wheelmade or handmade body, and the horse-and-rider. Two sets of questions relating to these figurines will be examined: one concerning the origin and diffusion of these types in the 8 th -7 th centuries, the other concerning their continuity into the Persian period (6 th -4 th centuries).

The extensive corpus of figurines from this period, so far unpublished, from the site of Ashkelon in the southern coastal plain of Israel, allows for a new perspective on these issues. In comparison with figurines from other Levantine sites, they will help to provide answers to the following questions: Can well-stratified and dated finds provide a more exact chronology of the process of diffusion, and ultimately a better understanding of the transmission or adaptation of cultural ideas? What is the relationship between the types of the 7 th century and those of the Persian period in the southern Levant? Considering the scholarly consensus that this region was depopulated by the Babylonians in the late 7th-early 6 th centuries, and later resettled by Phoenician colonists, this last question and its implications deserve careful study.

Terrakotten aus dem Hanghaus 2 in Ephesos

Elisabeth RATHMAYR

Dr Elisabeth RATHMAYR (Vienna)

Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut für Kulturgeschichte der Antike, c/o Bäckerstraße 13, A- 1010 Vienna, AUSTRIA.

<elisabeth.rathmayr@assoc.oeaw.ac.at>

Die insula Hanghaus 2 lag im Zentrum des antiken Ephesos. Sie liefert durch ihren exzellenten Erhaltungszustand, ihre hochwertige Ausstattung und ihr umfangreiches Fundinventar ein einmaliges Zeugnis kaiserzeitlicher Wohnkultur im östlichen Mittelmeerraum. Auf ihrer ca. 4000 m² großen Fläche befinden sich 7 Wohneinheiten, die in der frühen Kaiserzeit errichtet und die infolge einer Erdbebenzerstörung im 3. Viertel des 3. Jhs. n. Chr. aufgegeben wurden.

Die Terrakotten aus dem Hanghaus 2 stammen einerseits aus dem Zerstörungsschutt, andererseits aus älteren Schichten. Erstere sind der letzten Ausstattung vor der Zerstörung im 3. Viertel des 3. Jhs. n. Chr. zuzuweisen, letztere mit großer Wahrscheinlichkeit früheren Ausstattungsperioden. Die Anzahl der Terrakotten aus der jüngsten Wohnphase ist geringer als davor, weshalb anzunehmen ist, dass die Terrakotten in den älteren Phasen einen wesentlich größeren Anteil an der Skulpturenausstattung bzw. dem Hausrat bildeten. Als Darstellungen kommen in der letzten Wohnphase Gladiatoren, Gliederpuppen, Grotesken, Gewandfiguren, Porträts, Tiere, Masken und in geringer Menge auch Götterfiguren, darunter am häufigsten Eros, vor. Die Fundorte dieser der jüngsten Wohnphase zuzuweisenden Terrakotten erstrecken sich über alle Bereiche der jeweiligen Wohneinheiten im Hanghaus 2, die Mehrzahl stammt aber aus den repräsentativen Räumen und den Höfen. Hier fand man auch einen Großteil der Plastik aus Marmor und anderen Materialien, weshalb von einer vom Material unabhängigen Skulpturenausstattung auszugehen ist. Jedoch ist darauf hinzuweisen, dass ganz bestimmte Themen wie Grotesken oder Gladiatoren nur in Ton, nicht aber in Marmor vorkommen, während Porträts und Porträtbüsten für beide Materialgruppen belegt sind. Die Funktion der einzelnen Terrakotten ist einerseits durch den Darstellungsinhalt, andererseits aber auch durch den Aufstellungs- bzw. Anbringungsort in Zusammenhang mit der Gesamtausstattung eines Raumes zu ermitteln. Generell kann zwischen einer dekorativen, repräsentativen und einer dem Hauskult dienenden Funktion unterschieden werden.

Terracotta Coroplastics in Late Roman and Proto-Byzantine Pottery:

The Case of Elaiussa Sebaste (Ayaş, Turkey)

Marco RICCI

Dr Marco RICCI (Rome)

Universita’ degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”, Piazzale A. Moro, 5, I-00185 Rome, ITALY.

<rimarcocci@hotmail.it>

In età tardo-antica e proto-bizantina il ruolo delle figurine in terracotta quali suppellettile di ornamento domestico nel mondo romano scompare completamente. Sono attestati comunque askoi a forma di animale e dettagli decorativi di vasellame, quali anse e prese zoomorfe. Questi tipi di ceramica decorata sono particolarmente diffusi nel Mediterraneo orientale in quest’epoca fra il materiale comune da mensa. La comunicazione prende in esame esemplari di vasellame con figurine fittili zoomorfe provenienti dallo scavo di Elaiussa Sebaste in Cilicia e riferibili al V-VII sec. d.C., confrontandolo con materiali noti provenienti da contesti coevi orientali ed occidentali. Il materiale di Elaiussa si presenta di fondamentale importanza per la provenienza da contesti sicuramente datati e si integra nel quadro più complesso delle produzioni della città, che si vanno sempre più definendo grazie agli scavi a cura della missione archeologica dell’Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, che opera sul sito dal 1995.

Figurines de terre cuite de Thesprotie

Georgios RIGINOS/Théodora LAZOU

Mr Georgios RIGINOS (Arta)

32nd Ephoria of the Classical and Prehistoric Antiquities of Preveza-Arta, Periferiaki Odos 33,

GR-47100 Arta, GREECE.

<lgepka@yahoo.gr>

Mrs Theodora LAZOU (Arta)

32nd Ephoria of the Classical and Prehistoric Antiquities of Preveza-Arta, Periferiaki Odos 33,

GR-47100 Arta, GREECE.

<tlazou@yahoo.gr>

Cette communication se propose de présenter les principales trouvailles de figurines de terre cuite de Thesprotie. Elles couvrent une large fourchette chronologique, de la fin de la période classique jusqu’à la période romaine, et doivent, pour l’essentiel, être mises en relation avec le développement de la religion domestique dans la région. Elles ont été recueillies dans des maisons, au cours de la fouille de grands centres urbains, ou dans des bâtiments que d’autres trouvailles identifient comme des fermes. L’analyse du répertoire iconographique de ces figurines – il s’agit principalement de types féminins – et l’examen de leur rôle et fonction dans le cadre bien précis de la maison enrichiront nos connaissances, tant de la vie quotidienne et des conceptions religieuses en Thesprotie que des particularités de l’artisanat local de la coroplathie.

On examinera également quelques exemples de figurines recueillies dans des tombes ou dans des hérôons, qui permettent d’aborder le culte rendu aux morts héroïsés. Le dépôt de figurines dans les tombes des « héros » défunts, loin du cadre étroit de la maison, garde initialement les traits personnels du culte domestique pour s’enrichir par la suite d’un caractère public/local, où le défunt constitue un ciment de la communauté.

Les principaux ensembles de trouvailles de figurines de Thesprotie permettront ainsi d’aborder le développement de la religion domestique, de reconstituer des pratiques cultuelles, de pointer des éléments de topographie et de retracer les contacts et échanges culturels avec d’autres régions.

Traduction: Arthur Muller

Terracotta Figurines of Tell Deinit, Syria

Marco ROSSI

Mr Marco ROSSI (Rome)

Università degli Studi di Pisa, Dipartimento scienze storiche del mondo antico, Via Galvani 1,

I-56126 Pisa, ITALY.

<Mrsiria@tiscali.it>

A recent study of the University of Pisa (Italy) is related to the objects found during thirty years of archaeological excavations done by a Syrian Team on the site of Tell Deinit in the district of Idlib, on the border of the Antioch Plain. The results documented the phases of the development of the site, showing the local production of Late Iron Age and Persian-Hellenistic terracotta figurines. The clay objects belongs to two different series of production, identified in the types of the Astarte Plaque and the Persian Rider: the long inner evolution of the two series attested a technical transformation from the large presence of the traditional modelled production in direction to the more extensive use of mixed techniques; the inner iconographic transformation showed different types and variants.

Neue Typen und Themen figürlicher Terrakotten aus Priene

Frank RUMSCHEID

Dr Frank RUMSCHEID (Berlin)

Institut für Klassische Archäologie der Freien Universität Berlin, Otto-von-Simson Str. 11,

D-14195 Berlin, GERMANY.

<frum@zedat.fu-berlin.de>

Wie man bei einer Stadt vom ‘epigraphic habit’ einer bestimmten Zeit spricht, so kann man periodenweise auch das Terrakotten-Spektrum zusammenstellen und mit dem anderer Städte vergleichen. Man erfaßt damit anhand einer meist umfangreichen Kleinfundgattung lokale Eigenheiten, allgemeine Tendenzen und zeitabhängige Entwicklungen. Kommen genügend aussagefähige Fundzusammenhänge hinzu, treten religiöse Vorstellungen und kultische Praktiken im öffentlichen Bereich ebenso deutlicher hervor wie thematische Vorlieben im privaten Raum und bei Bestattungen. Dazu muß jedoch das Spektrum möglichst vieler Städte bekannt sein.

Was Priene angeht, so nahm H. Winnefeld von den in den deutschen Grabungen bis 1899 entdeckten figürlichen Terrakotten an, "dass sie uns eine nicht allzu einseitige Vorstellung vom Charakter des einst Vorhandenen ... gewähren" (in: Th. Wiegand, H. Schrader, Priene [1904] 331). Tatsächlich war das erkennbare typologische und thematische Spektrum der Tonfiguren damals sogar schon größer, als exemplarisch in der Publikation dargestellt. Dies ist nun im gerade erschienenen Terrakotten-Band der neuen Priene-Reihe dokumentiert, der alle vor 1998 bekannten Stücke umfaßt (F. Rumscheid, Die figürlichen Terrakotten von Priene. Fundkontexte, Ikonographie und Funktion in Wohnhäusern und Heiligtümern im Licht antiker Parallelbefunde [2006]). Demnach scheint das hellenistische Priene eine der themenreichsten und qualitätvollsten Terrakotten-Produktionen überhaupt besessen zu haben. Seit 1998 sind zudem viele hundert freilich meist nur fragmentarisch erhaltene Terrakotten ausgegraben worden. Einige repräsentieren in Priene bisher unbekannte Typen und Themen und zeigen, daß das einstige Spektrum noch reicher war und vermutlich nie mehr völlig zu erfassen sein wird: Neu sind etwa weibliche Büsten mit und ohne Rückseite, ‘Rumpfpuppen’, schlafende Eroten, die miniaturisierte Nachbildung eines Kalypters, eine Harpokrates-Figur und ein nackter Krieger oder Waffentänzer sowie an Gruppen zwei flüsternde Frauen und ein Pothos-artiger, jedoch flügelloser Knabe mit Gans an einer Priapos-Herme. Aus der Vorgängerbebauung des mittelhellenistischen Buleuterions stammen schließlich erstmals Figuren, die auffällig altertümlichen Typen angehören.

Female Protomes from Chaironeia in Boeotia

Victoria SABETAI

Dr Victoria SABETAI (Athens)

Academy of Athens, Research Centre for Antiquity, Anagnostopoulou 14,

GR-10673 Athens, GREECE.

<vsabetai@academyofathens.gr>

An assemblage of multiple female bust-protomes, together with figurines of animals and a seated woman as well as several figured and black-glazed vases was handed over to the Ephorate of Thebes in 1993. Its provenance is known to be the Atalalis plot, Chaironeia and the assemblage must derive from a cremation burial.

In this paper the following aspects of the protomes are discussed:

1. Dating. This can be deduced on stylistic grounds as well as on the basis of the vases found with the protomes. The vases are late black-figured Haimoneian lekythoi, floral cups, black-glazed cups, skyphoi and a kantharos. I will examine the traditional chronological range of the pottery which ranges from the 2nd quarter of the 5th c. B.C. for the lekythoi to just before the battle at Delion (424 BC) for the floral cups. Potential discrepancies in date can be resolved when realizing that Haimoneian lekythoi may occur in later contexts in Boeotia (up to 450-440 BC). The rest of the vases all date ca. 450-40 BC, except for the floral cups, which are the latest find, possibly dating to 435-430 BC. A dating in the 3rd quarter of the 5th c. would accommodate the ceramic and the coroplastic evidence, although the protomes transcribe stylistic features of the late Severe Style, in a possibly intentional attempt to make them look older and venerable.

2. Type. All protomes belong to a type that is favoured in Boeotia and southern Phokis, but is relatively unknown elsewhere. Their common feature is a peculiar wig-like coiffure, called «etagenperruke» which is reminiscent of daedalic hairstyles. This coiffure also occurs on a series of Boeotian figurines that reaches the end of the 5th century BC or a little later.

3. Diffusion. Luckily and despite the fact that classical Chaironeia is still unknown, there exist some –unpublished-comparanda from the neighbouring sites of Akontion and Haliartos, though they are not not as high-quality as the ones presented here. A handful of unprovenanced comparanda for this type of protome are known from international collections. Some depict divinities, but most are generic. The type spans the 5th and the beginning of the 4th century BC and is known from various Boeotian findspots, but it should be noted that it is a rather uncommon find and presumably not mass-produced.

4. Function. This type of protome is almost invariably found in tombs. However, female protomes are also known from domestic and cultic contexts, they therefore had multiple uses. Instead of focussing on the issue of identification, the question will be raised who was buried with the protomes, and whether these objects were used for special occasions, or to indicate transient states. The possible role of the protomes in the burial ritual will be discussed, taking into account that they may have evoked a combination of social uses over the course of their use-life in the female sphere prior to burial.

Une grotte cultuelle aux confins occidentaux de Céphalonie

Stavroula SAMARTZIDOU–ORKOPOULOU

Dr Stavroula SAMARTZIDOU–ORKOPOULOU (Athens)

Ephorate of Paleoanthropology – Speleology of Southern Greece, Ardittou 34b,

GR-11636 Athens, GREECE.

<teork@hol.gr>

Le site et les trouvailles de la « grotte du dragon » à Paliki, la pointe la plus occidentale de Céphalonie, étaient connus depuis le XIXe siècle : mais la echerche ne s’y est intéressée que récemment, à partir de 2006 en fait, en raison des énormes difficultés d’accès à la grotte. Elle est longue de 45 m, orientée nord-sud avec une entrée dans la falaise de la côte ouest de l’île. Son occupation a été continue, de l’époque préhistorique jusqu’au delà de l’époque byzantine. Les trouvailles mobilières attestent cependant un usage particulier à l’époque néolithique ainsi qu’une intense activité cultuelle à la fin de l’époque archaïque et durant l’époque classique.

Les trouvailles les plus nombreuses et les plus intéressantes, malgré leur état fragmentaire, sont les figurines de terre cuite. Parmi elles dominent clairement les protomés féminines, dans une variété remarquable de types et de qualité : figures de face ou de trois-quarts, avec des coiffures élaborées aux boucles peintes, le plus souvent avec un diadème et un trou de suspension.

On trouve également d’autres types de terres cuites, en très petit nombre toutefois : des fragments de rondes de danse, ou de plaques-reliefs représentant des danses, ou encore des figurines en pied tenant des offrandes.

Malgré la brièveté des travaux de terrain et l’intensité des fouilles clandestines, on a pu recueillir un nombre significatif de trouvailles qui attestent que la région devait être une étape importante sur la route de l’Occident ; on a d’ores et déjà pu établir des relations évidentes ainsi que des influences tant du continent que de la Grande Grèce.

Traduction: Arthur Muller

Ateliers de coroplathes à l'époque classique:

questions d'organisation et d'implantation spatiales

Giorgos SANIDAS

Dr Giorgos SANIDAS (Lille)

Université Charles de Gaulle – Lille 3, UMR 8164 — HALMA-IPEL,

BP 60149, F-59653 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cédex, FRANCE.

<sanidas_giorgos@yahoo.fr>

La coroplathie, et notamment celle qui utilise le moulage (depuis le VIIe s.), constitue un exemple de production céramique variée, présente à toutes les périodes de l'Antiquité grecque. Notre connaissance sur ce domaine de production est due à l'étude de nombreuses trouvailles de matériel coroplastique étudiées et publiées. Même s'il reste toujours des domaines à éclaircir, on maîtrise de mieux en mieux les produits, les techniques de fabrication, le rôle des clientèles.

L'atelier du coroplathe, quant à lui, reste une structure qui est soit mal connue, faute de trouvailles suffisantes, soit dissimulée puisqu'elle fait partie d'ateliers céramiques polyvalents. Ainsi même si l'on connaît de plus en plus d'ateliers et de boutiques de coroplathes d'époque hellénistique, les trouvailles datant des périodes archaïque et classique sont relativement peu nombreuses. Il serait donc intéressant de tenter de poser un certain nombre de questions à partir des données, vieilles et récentes, telle qu'elles apparaissant dans la documentation connue à ce jour.

Cette communication propose d'aborder les questions suivantes :

— les catégories de données archéologiques qui rendent compte d'un contexte de production ;

— la place et le statut de la production coroplastique dans les contextes de production céramique ;

— le cadre spatial de la production et son implantation par rapport aux autres espaces et fonctions de la cité.

Function and Meaning of Some Terracotta Figurines

in Classical Girl Graves at Athens

Agnes SCHWARZMAIER

Dr Agnes SCHWARZMAIER (Berlin)

Institut für Klassische Archäologie der Freie Universität Berlin,

Otto von Simson-Str. 11, D-14197 Berlin, GERMANY

and Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Antikensammlung,

Altes Museum, Bodestr. 1-3, D-10178 Berlin, GERMANY.

<aschwarz@zedat.fu-berlin.de>

In Classical girl graves and offering ditches (“Opferrinnen”) in the Athenian Kerameikos have been found various types of terracotta figurines, which are controversialy or even not yet interpreted. These are for instance figurines of sitting or enthroned girls and of naked lying females, the upper part of peplophoroi and curious forearms with stretched hands.

A detailled revision of the contexts and all grave goods enables us to interpret these objects within boader bounds, to understand their function in the grave and the ideas connected with them.

Figurines zoomorphes de la nécropole de Locres Opontienne

Maria SELEKOU

Mrs Maria SELEKOU (Athens)

General Secretary Office, Greek Ministry of Culture, 20-22 Bouboulinas Str.,

GR-10682 Athens, GREECE.

<mariaselekou@yahoo.gr>

Homère le premier appelle « Locride » la région qui fait face à l’Eubée. L’épithète « opontienne » désigne la partie orientale de la Locride, et plus précisément la région de la capitale, l’antique Oponte, patrie des héros homériques Ajax et Patrocle, l’ami d’Achille.

C’est sur le territoire de la Locride opontienne, près de la côte à 2 km à l’ouest de Livanata, où se trouvait Kynos, le port antique d’Oponte, qu’a été fouillé un ensemble de 80 tombes. Il s’agit pour la Locride d’une importante nécropole, datée de la fin de l’époque archaïque jusqu’au IIe s. av. J.-C. Tout au long de cette durée d’utilisation, les inhumations ont été pratiquées exclusivement dans de grands pithoi, ou, pour les tombes d’enfants, dans des amphores.

On présentera ici les figurines animales, qui constituaient une partie du mobilier funéraire accompagnant un certain nombre de morts. On a pu établir qu’elles ne se trouvent que dans les tombes de l’époque classique et sont absentes des tombes de la fin de l’archaïsme et de l’époque hellénistique. Ces figurines se répartissent en une dizaine d’espèces : coq, cheval, bélier, chien, tortue, singe, porc, taureau, colombe et un animal non identifiable, de très petite taille. On les examinera des points de vue de la typologie, du rendu, des techniques de fabrication qui dénotent probablement une production de masse, des influences stylistiques et enfin de la chronologie. On terminera par les conclusions sur leur présence dans des tombes d’enfants surtout, et plus généralement sur les pratique funéraires des Locriens d’Oponte.

Traduction: Arthur Muller

The Coroplastic Art of Ancient Marion

Nancy SERWINT

Dr Nancy SERWINT (Tempe, AZ)

School of Art, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1505, USA.

<nancy.serwint@asu.edu>

Excavations undertaken since 1983 at the site of ancient Marion, located on the northwest coast of Cyprus, have yielded an unprecedented number of fragments of terracotta sculpture – perhaps the largest corpus of such material ever discovered in archaeological excavation on the island. Recovered from well-dated contexts, the bounty of material – over 25 000 fragments of sculpture, ranging in size from miniature to colossal – informs on many different aspects of the coroplastic arts: iconographic variability, sensitivity to foreign stylistic influences, and the role of terracotta sculpture in cult worship. The abundance of material especially allows for the investigation of manufacturing strategies and production techniques that can be traced diachronically across a period of over three hundred years spanning the archaic and classical periods. The quantity of the Marion corpus as well as the variation in size of the objects affords for a unique opportunity to study how artisans evolved expedient methods of production to meet a prodigious local demand. Utilizing nearby abundant clay deposits, Marion coroplasts fashioned objects employing diverse methods ranging from handmade manufacture of various types to the use of the wheel and the incorporation of molds. At the nexus of trans-Aegean trade routes, resident artisans were particularly sensitive to production techniques that were current in Syro-Palestine as well as the Greek world, and the Marion corpus clearly reflects a sympathetic response to contemporary techniques that were practiced beyond the confines of the island.

Religious and Decorative Uses of Terracottas in Houses at Olynthus

Heather F. SHARPE

Dr Heather F. SHARPE (West Chester, PA)

West Chester University, Department of Art, Mitchell Hall 219, West Chester, PA 19383, USA

<hsharpe@wcupa.edu>

The ancient city of Olynthus, decimated in 348 B.C., provides one of the best opportunities to study both the contents and designs of late 5th to early 4th century Greek houses. The sudden destruction of the city contributed to a considerable portion of the house contents being found in situ. While items made of precious materials were carried off by the fleeing inhabitants or looted by Macedonian soldiers, many of the terracotta objects were left behind in large numbers. The terracotta finds from Olynthus thus provide an ideal opportunity to evaluate the reasons behind the use and display of terracottas in Greek houses. Current debate swings between their use as decorative and/or religious objects.

By examining iconography, findspot and artifacts found in their proximity, it can be demonstrated that terracotta figurines were utilized by inhabitants for both religious and secular purposes. Most intriguing is their religious use. Traditional households gods, Hermes (herms), Zeus, and Hestia, frequently mentioned in literature, were seldom represented in sculptural form. By comparison, the majority of terracottas found in houses at Olynthus depict women in the form of heads, busts, masks, and seated and standing figures, whose generic appearance and lack of attributes often make it difficult to determine whether they are mortal or divine. Moreover, the findspots of Olynthian terracotta figurines rarely near household altars or other religious furnishings contribute only partially to our understanding of their identity and use. Rather, as pointed out by Nicholas Cahill, many of the terracottas were found in association with objects primarily used by women (e.g. loomweights, jewelry and cookware). This suggests that many of these female masks, heads and figurines may in fact represent deities with strong associations to the domestic work and lives of Olynthian women (e.g. Demeter and Aphrodite).

Worshipper Figurines at Mytilene

Kathleen Donahue SHERWOOD

Prof. Kathleen Donahue SHERWOOD (Montreal, QE/Vancouver, BC)

4465 Old Orchard Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4A 3B5, CANADA

<kdsherwood@hotmail.com>

A modest sanctuary of Demeter, located on the acropolis of Mytilene, was excavated by a team of Canadian archaeologists in the 1980s and the 1990s. In plan it takes the form of a series of small rooms to the west, while a line of altars lies to the east. The sanctuary flourished from the 4th to the 2nd centuries B.C.E. During this time, the most common figurine was the “worshipper” type, i.e., elaborately draped females standing in a distinctive pose.

This particular pose, or gesture of “address”, has been a characterisic of the iconography of anthropomorphic figurines in the Greek world since at least the Bronze Age. The pose consists of one or two upraised arms held out to the side, and bent at the elbow, with the palm facing outward. Although we do not know if this was a ritual gesture with a special meaning, there is general agreement among scholars that such a pose was intended to greet or attract the attention of the deity whom the worshipper wished to address.

This paper will present examples of each worshipper type from Mytilene along with select illustrations of variations within each type. The closest comparanda, though generally less sophisticated in style, are figurines from the site of Pergamon. Many of those terracotta worshippers come from the Demeter sanctuary there, which was much favored by the royal women of the Attalid family. The striking similarities of this type of figurine at the two sites, despite their very different architectural settings, continues and underscores the close connections that had existed for a long time between the island of Lesbos and the cities opposite on the coast of Asia Minor.

The Seated-Goddess Figurines from the Hyria Sanctuary on Naxos

Evangelie SIMANTONI-BOURNIAS

Prof. Evangelie SIMANTONI-BOURNIAS (Athens)

Department of History and Archaeology, University Campus, Zographou,

GR-15784 Athens, GREECE.

<esiman@ppp.uoa.gr>

Excavations at the Sanctuary of Hyria on the island of Naxos, brought to light a number of figurines in the type of the enthroned goddess. The type is very common and widespread, but in our case also invaluable in identifying the cult of the Sanctuary, especially if it is considered together with some other finds of the same or previous date. This paper presents the relevant material and discusses some aspects of the deity or deities worshiped at Hyria.

Die weibliche Gewandfiguren aus dem sog. Felsspalttempel in Ephesos

Feriştah SOYKAL ALANYALI

Dr Feriştah SOYKAL ALANYALI (Eskişehir)

Anadolu Üniversitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi, Arkeoloji Bölümü, TR- Eskişehir, TURKEY.

<fsoykal@anadolu.edu.tr>

Der sog. Felsspalttempel von Ephesos liegt westlich des Stadions auf einer Kuppe des nordwestlichen Ausläufers des Panayırdağ. Der Tempel, dessen Unterbau aus dem anstehenden Fels gehauen ist, wurde im Jahre 1926 von J. Keil entdeckt. Aufgrund eines tiefen natürlichen Spalts, der den Bau durchzieht, wurde er Felsspalttempel genannt. In den Jahren 1977-1978 wurde das Fundament unter der Leitung von St. Karwiese erneut freigelegt und untersucht. Während der Arbeiten entdeckten die Ausgräber qualitätsvolle Terrakottastatuetten, Opferschälchen und vor allem Stirnziegel mit der Darstellung der Rankenfrau. Für die Bestimmung des Kultinhabers spielen die Terrakottafiguren besonders eine Schlüsselrolle. Von den ca 50 Terrakotten sind etwa 32 Stück repräsentative Stücke. Unter diesen befinden sich dreizehn stehende weibliche Figuren, sechs weibliche Köpfe, je eine Statuette von Asklepios (?) und Eros (?), zwei Statuetten der Nike, eine Statuette eines Hydrophoros, eine Puppe, ein grotesker Kopf, ein Kauernder Knabe, ein stehender nackter Knabe, drei Knabenköpfe und ein Terrakottasäulchen. Sie wurden bisher von mir thematisch untersucht (s. F. Soykal-Alanyalı, „Terrakotta Figürinler Işığında Felsspalttempel-Yarıkkaya Tapınağı“ III. Uluslararası Eskişehir Pişmiş Toprak Sempozyumu, 169-176, Eskişehir 2003; F. Soykal-Alanyalı, „Überlegungen zum Kult der Demeter und Persephone in sog. Felsspalttempel in Ephesos“ B. Brandt-V. Gassner-S. Ladstätter (Hrsg.), Synergia. Festschrift für Friedrich Krinzinger, 319-326, Wien, 2005). Die Themen dieser Terrakotten lassen sich solchen aus den Demeterbezirken von Pergamon, Troja, Priene, Knidos, Korinth und Knossos sowie Thasos gegenüberstellen. Die Thematik der Figuren sowie Lage und Charakter des Tempels lassen feststellen, das der sog. Felsspalttempel eine Kultstätte für Demeter und Kore war. Aus dem Felsspalttempel stammen vorwiegend weibliche Gewandfiguren. Mit diesem Beitrag werden dieser weiblichen Gewandfiguren stilistisch untersuchen.

The Coroplastic Art of Ancient Messene:

New Material from the Sanctuaries of the City

Maria G. SPATHI

Dr Maria G. SPATHI (Athens)

Hellenic Ministry of Culture, Ephorate of Paleoanthropology-Speleology

Ardittou 34 b, GR-11636 Athens, GREECE

and Falirou 43, GR-18543 Pireas, GREECE

<maria.spathi@web.de>

In the past the sanctuaries and the different cults in ancient Messene were the core of the scientific research. They are important for the study of the ancient religion as well as for their appearance and evolution in the city. Some of these sanctuaries existed before the foundation of the city of Messene at 369 BC, while most of them dated in the Hellenistic and Roman times, are mentioned by Pausanias, who visited the city between 150-155 BC. For example: the sanctuary of Artemis Orthia, of Demeter and of Dioskouroi, the temenos of Heracles and Hermes, the sanctuary of Zeus Ithomatas, the sanctuary of Eileithyia and the Kouretes, the sanctuary of Artemis Limnatis.

The theme of this abstract is the coroplastic production of Messene. They are many findings and many new types of terracotta’s that appear for the first time in Peloponnesus. New types of hydriaphoroi, of standing draped youths, young girls and women, figurines with shields, and kourotrophos figurines and some impressive big figurines of men and horses came to light recently and are examined in this paper. The paper offers, when of course evidence seems sufficient to allow them, interpretations of the meaning of the figurines represented at the sanctuaries in relation to the cult.

The Terracottas from the Pasikrata Sanctuary at Demetrias, Thessaly

Maria STAMATOPOULOU

Dr Maria STAMATOPOULOU (Oxford)

University of Oxford, Lincoln College, OX1 3DR Oxford, GREAT BRITAIN.

<maria.stamatopoulou@lincoln.oxford.ac.uk>

This paper will discuss the terracotta figurines which were found in the sanctuary of Enodia and Pasikrata, that was excavated by A. Arvanitopoulos in Demetrias between 1912-17. The sanctuary was located immediately outside the city gates in the southern part of the city. Inscribed votives attest to the cult of Enodia and Pasikrata at the site from the 3rd century BC to at least the 2nd c AD. Although the range of votives was wide, the majority were terracotta figurines of various types, mainly female figures of the ‘Tanagra’ type, children, as well as other figures such as kourotrophoi etc. This paper will discuss a) the typology and the iconography of the figurines in relation to the other votives from the sanctuary, b) the unity of the find; b) the extent to which figurines can be informative about the nature of the cult at the site.

Koroplasten im Kerameikos: Terrakotta-Modeln im Kerameikos

Jutta STROSZECK

Dr Jutta STROSZECK (Athens)

Kerameikosgrabung, c/o Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Abteilung Athen,

Pheidiou 1, GR-10186 Athens, GREECE.

<jutta_stroszeck@hotmail.com>

Der Kerameikos von Athen hat seinen Namen von den Töpfern, deren Werkstattaktivitäten seit dem 5. Jh. v. Chr. bis in die Spätantike im modernen Ausgrabungsgelände dokumentiert sind. Jedoch sind auch reichlich Zeugnisse dafür vorhanden, daß außerdem die Koroplasten in der Umgebung des Geländes ihrem Gewerbe nachgingen.

Im Kerameikosgelände sind viele Terrakotten sowie Modeln für Terrakotten aus verschiedenen Zeiten gefunden worden (vgl. B. Vierneisel-Schlörb, Die figürlichen Terrakotten I. Spätmykenisch bis späthellenistisch. Kerameikos XV [München 1997]). Die Anzahl hat sich durch die Grabungen seit 1998 beträchtlich erhöht. Vorgestellt wird eine Reihe von Neufunden von Modeln und Abdrücken, denen sich bisher unpublizierte Altfunde anschließen lassen. Diese Funde geben einen Einblick in Art und Umfang der im Kerameikos produzierenden Werkstätten und in ihre Besonderheiten.

Abschließend werden Fragen nach der Organisation der Töpferwerkstätten im Kerameikos und nach der Art und Weise ihrer Zusammenarbeit mit den Koroplasten behandelt.

The Votive Terracottas from the Mountain Sanctuary on Top of Çirişli Tepe

Lâtife SUMMERER

Dr Lâtife SUMMERER (Munich)

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Institut für Klassische Archäologie, Meiserstr. 10,

D-80333 Munich, GERMANY

<l.summerer@ka.fak12.uni-muenchen.de>

About 50 km inland from the port city of Samsun near the small town of Kavak, a mountain sanctuary is located on the summit of a conical hill (860 m). The sacred site surrounded by two stone walls is still visible, also Fragments of a stone Baitylos. In 1883 this site was visited by the British Consul in Trabzon, Alfred Biliotti.

Biliotti found a bilingual inscription (Greek/Latin), a dedication by a certain Casperius Ailianus to Apollo Did(ymeus). Casperius Ailianus was a citizen of Amisos because there his gravestone was found. Biliotti also excavated on top of the Çirişli Tepe a great number of votive terracottas, clay lamps and pottery sherds which are kept at the British Museum, and which are to date neither studied nor published.

This paper focuses on the votive terracottas considering their context in the sanctuary and on their religious signification.

Most of the votive terracottas are bull figurines which show a clear Anatolian character. However, there are also more figure types well known from other Greek well known figure types from other Greek sanctuaries. These types belong mostly into the Hellenistic-Roman period.

The Anatolian characteristics of the major part of the votives (bull and human figurines) demonstrate that the sanctuary was originally dedicated to a local god later identified by the Greeks with Apollo Didymeus. The votive terracottas from the sanctuary on top of the Çirişli Tepe are prime material source for our understanding of the religious interrelations between the Greeks and the native population in the Black Sea region.

Votive Terracotta Figurines from Thesprotia, Epirus

Irini SVANA

Mrs Irini SVANA (Igoumenitsa)

Hellenic Ministry of Culture, 32th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities,

Dagkli 6A, GR-46100 Igoumenitsa, GREECE

and Litous 2, GR-11146 Galatsi, GREECE

<svana@pittakidis.com>

A rural sanctuary has been traced during urgent archaeological researches in the Paramythia Plain in Thesprotia, Epirus (NW Greece). From the excavation of the site a great amount of votive terracotta figurines, mainly female, came to light. Most of the figurines are dated from the Hellenistic period. Nevertheless, there are some pieces which can be dated from the early Classical period. The detection of this rural sanctuary provides important information about the history, the economic status and the religious life of the Thesprotians, especially because its existence seems to be earlier than the establishment of the local (epirotic) urban centers.

The votive figurines found at the sanctuary, are examined as evidence for the cultural and economic relations of the Thesprotians during the Classical and the Hellenistic periods. The terracotta figurines are classified according to the iconographic type they represent. Their iconography can be helpful in order to identify the worshipped deity (or deities) and to understand any possible ritual practices. Moreover a connection of the terracotta finds with some flourishing workshops of the ancient world is attempted. This connection can be either direct, concerning some figurines as original products of these workshops, or it can be indirect because many finds from the sanctuary seem to imitate well known iconographic types. In any case, it is obvious that Thesprotia has substantial cultural and economic relations with many flourishing regions of the ancient world (Corinth and/ or Corinthian colonies, Macedonia, South Italy).

Terracotta Figurines of Gladiators from Turkish Thrace

Işık ŞAHİN, Hüsniye GÜÇLÜ

Dr Işık ŞAHİN (Edirne)

Trakya Üniversitesi, Fen- Edebiyat Fakültesi, Arkeoloji Bölümü, Güllapoğlu,

TR-22030 Edirne, TURKEY

<i_sahin22@hotmail.com>

Ms Hüsniye GÜÇLÜ (Edirne)

Trakya Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Güllapoğlu, TR-22030 Edirne, TURKEY

<husniyeguclu@hotmail.com>

The six terracotta figurines, which are found from three different towns of Turkish Thrace, which are close to each other along the Via Egnatia, are in the collection of Museum of Tekirdağ. Two figurines from Perinthos (Marmara Ereğlisi) are female, three of them male and the last one is possibly a male too. The three male figurines are from Apri (Kermeyan Village) and one of them was found at Rhaidestos (Tekirdağ). The female figurines were found in the same marble sarcophagus with two different legs. All the figurines have perforations in the helmets or in the heads.

Since it is already known that in the mid second century BC, Antiochos Epiphanes introduced the gladiator games into the East and based on their clothing and the equipment they carry, we think that these figurines are gladiators. There were also women gladiators entered the arena sometimes until this practice was prohibited at the end of second century AD. A woman gladiator figurine found in Ilion has very close similiarities with our female figurines. The same figurine in Ilion also has similar dangling legs as the one found in Perinthos. We know that there are many dangling legs found in Apri and brought to the Museum of Tekirdağ. We will try to understand whether they belong to the gladiator figurines. In this paper, we will also discuss the functions of these figurines, – two of these are grave finds – and their relations with the region.

Terracotta Figurines from the 2006 Excavation Campaign at Myndos, Caria

Mustafa ŞAHİN, Mustafa BULBA, Derya ŞAHİN, A. Ali ALTIN

Prof. Mustafa ŞAHİN (Bursa), Dr Mustafa BULBA (Bursa),

Mrs Derya ŞAHİN (Bursa), Mr A. Ali ALTIN (Bursa)

Uludağ Üniversitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi, Arkeoloji Bölümü, Görükle, TR-16059 Bursa, TURKEY.

<mustafasahin@uludag.edu.tr>; <aiematurkey@yahoo.com>

<mbulba@uludag.edu.tr>

<dsahin@uludag.edu.tr>

<alialtin@uludag.edu.tr>

The first archaeological discoveries at Myndos, a Carian site at Gümüşlük, near Bodrum in Muğla (southwestern Turkey) made by the western travellers of the late 19th century. Until 1950 where G. E. Bean had an extensive researche at the area, no noteworthy study has been made.

The field surveys that were begun under our directorate in 2004 became a joint excavation along with the Bodrum Museum of Nautical Archaeology in 2005. In 2006 the excavations at Carian Myndos transformed into a fully-scientific excavation after getting an official permit, assigned to the Department of Archaeology at the Uludağ University in Bursa.

At this poster terracotta figurines recovered at 2006 field season in Myndos will be presented in detail. Especially brazier handles are numerous in numbers. All the formerly known types of brazier handles from Knidos, published by M. Şahin, were found.

Beside these we have also found male and female representations in terracotta forMs Also a bird figurine is noteworthy.

Since excavations are very early to make a general interpretation about the site and its materials, this poster is only aimed to present terracotta figurine finds preliminarily.

Translated by Ergün Laflı

A Group of Terracotta Figurines from Parion, Mysia

Ali Yalçın TAVUKÇU

Dr Ali Yalçın TAVUKÇU (Erzurum)

Atatürk Üniversitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi, Arkeoloji Bölümü, TR-25240 Erzurum, TURKEY

<atavukcu@atauni.edu.tr>; <atavukcu@gmail.com>

In 2005 at the southern necropolis of Parion, at the trenches nos. E4 a, F3 c, F4 a and in four different spots east of UM 7 five major types of terracotta figurines were recovered: gods, goddesses, immortals (males and females) and animals.

Among others the most popular group is Aphrodites. It is usually observed that at the Aphrodite types, female and animal figurines pink is the most popular applied colour for the surface painting. At an Aphrodite in type of ‘Venus Genetrix’ beside pink yellow and blue surface colours were also applied.

Usually circular and vertical vent holes were made in the back side of figurines. In some cases figurines were left hollow.

Bases of Parion figurines are variable in their forMs They were made round, oval, rectangular or in a form of profiled base.

Clothed female figurines without any base, similar to Ionic forms from Myrina, Pergamon and Priene are represented at Parion with three samples.

These terracottas were dated into 1st cent. B.C. to 2nd cent. A.D. Some of them bears signatures in their back side. “KАΛΛIΓΥΑ” or its abbreviation “ΚΑ” are the most significant ones.

Translated by Ergün Laflı

Praeneste: le statuine del deposito votivo di C.so Pierluigi da Palestrina (Palestrina, Roma) tra archeologia e mito

Alessandra TEDESCHI

Ms Alessandra TEDESCHI (Milan/Rome)

Via dell’Agrifoglio 22, I-00172 Rome, ITALY

<alessandra-tedeschi@libero.it>

L’intervento che si propone prende spunto da uno scavo archeologico, promosso dalla Soprintendenza Archeologica per il Lazio nel cuore della città di Palestrina (RM) (Praeneste) nel corso del 2002. L’indagine ha consentito di individuare un importante sito costituito da strutture murarie in opera quadrata di tufo ed una stipe votiva databile, sulla base dei materiali rinvenuti, tra la metà del IV sec. a.C. e gli inizi del II sec. a.C.

Le strutture rimandano per la loro imponenza e l’accuratezza della realizzazione ad un edificio di grande impegno monumentale, che il rinvenimento della adiacente stipe sembra qualificare come un tempio.

Tra i materiali della stipe una serie di statuine femminili avvolte in un lungo himation, si distinguono per la particolarissima forma inarcata del corpo che le rende al momento degli unica e che mi ha portato ad indagare tra le fonti letterarie e mitografiche.

La riflessione, dunque, si articolerà sull’analisi del mito al quale la particolare forma delle statuine rimanda che è il mito di Galantide. La storia racconta di una parthenos, Galinzia/Galantide, che attraverso uno stratagemma aiuta l’amica Alcmena a partorire Eracle nonostante il divieto divino opposto da Hera-Giunone Lucina che voleva impedire il parto. Per questo la fanciulla verrà trasformata dalla divinità in una donnola.

L’altro aspetto indagato è quello delle fonti iconografiche. Non conosciamo rappresentazioni che illustrino il racconto mitico legato alla donnola o alla ragazza-donnola Galinthias-Galanthis. Gli argomenti prodotti ci porterebbero viceversa a considerare le statuine, nella loro strana forma di figura a metà umana e a metà animale, come rappresentazioni di Galantide, raffigurata con una iconografia che coglierebbe il momento della trasformazione della ragazza in donnola. Si tratterebbe in altre parole della prima iconografia antica che conosciamo di questa versione del mito.

Weibliche Terrakotten in den römischen Kastellen der Provinz Dacia

Calin TIMOC

Dr Calin TIMOC (Timisoara)

Department of History of the West University Timisoara

Bd. Vasile Parvan nr. 4, Timisoara, jud. Timis, ROUMANIA

<ctimoc@litere.uvt.ro>; <timoccalin@yahoo.com>

Die weibliche Terrakotten wurden in die antike Zeiten eher als ex-voto in die Lararien verwendet und gehörten mehr zu den persöhnlichen Gläubnisse als zu den offiziellen Kultus der Römern.

In die Lagern und Kastellen des römischen Dakiens sind die häufigsten Terrakottenfunde in dem Bereich der Mannschaftbaracken aufgetaucht, wo die meisten Kultbilder der Göttin Venus darstellen.

Diese Terrakotten scheinen mehr als billige Kopien der miniaturalen Bronzestatuen zu sein und vielleicht auch zur Praxis der Magie verbraucht.

Die technische Verfertigungen der Terrakotten sind in meisten Fälle einfach und grob, sehr wenige Darstellungen kommen im Bespräch ob sie echte Nachahmungen von Marmor- oder Bronzestatuen sein könnten. Man kann vermuten, dass sie der provinzialen Militärkunst gehören oder eine Evidenz der Barbariesierung der römischen Auxiliareinheiten im 2. und 3. Jhr. n.Chr. sind.

Es wurden viele weibliche Terrakotten in der Soldatenquartierungen gefunden, die Meisten sind zwischen 9 und 25 cm hoch und betreffen sich auf zwei Typus von Venusdarstellungen: Pudica und Anadyomene.

In Falle der grossen Wirtschafts- und Militärzentren Dakiens kann man die Idee einer lokalen Produktion der Terrakotten behaupten: z.B. Apulum, Potaissa, Tibiscum, Romula, Porolissum usw.

Coroplastic Finds from Akanthos

Eleni TRAKOSOPOULOU-SALAKIDOU

Mrs Eleni TRAKOSOPOULOU-SALAKIDOU (Thessaloniki)

Archaeological Institute of Macedonian-Thracian Studies

St. George Square, Rotonda, Thessaloniki, GREECE

<protocol@istepka.culture.gr>

The limited excavation on the northern area of the ancient city of Akanthos reveals gradually the remains of the fortification walls as well as the ruins of a Classical – Hellenistic building.

Among the plentiful archaeological objects, which are brought to light from this research, the coroplastic finds constitute only a small fraction in contrast to the other categories, like e.g. pottery. Most of the figurines are found in fragments and represent standard types of protomes, male or female figures and others, with different provenances. A small number of moulds contributes to the study of local production, which reflects influences by various workshops of the East Greek area mainly. Unfortunately most of them are partially preserved. A fragmentary mould of Dionysos mask and an inscribed mould of a turtle are of particular interest.

Plastic vases are relatively few, too. They have come to light in the course of archaeological research, carried out over many excavational seasons in the cemeteries of the ancient city, and enhance the small collection of the Polygyros Museum. Most of them are made of clay – only some vases are made of faience – and are dated to the 6th century B.C.

In general, various types are distinguished, such as anthropomorphic and bird features, etc, which derive mainly from workshops of the East part of Greece, but they also come from other regions.

During the 5th century we meet interesting creations of some Attic workshops. A vase in the form of a negro’s head represents the Roman Empire era, which is the late period of the presence of plastic vases in Akanthos.

Terracotta Figurines from the Necropolis of Assos, Troad

Veysel TOLUN

Dr Veysel TOLUN (Çanakkale)

Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, Fen-Eddebiyat Fakültesi, Arkeoloji Bölümü,

Terzioğlu Kampüsü, TR-17100 Çanakkale, TURKEY.

<vtolun@yahoo.com>

This communication will focus on the terracotta figurines recovered from the excavations at the necropolis of Assos in Troad between the seasons of 1988 and 1994. The figurines from these excavations will be presented in terms of typology, iconography, function and date.

Typologically divinities, immortals (both male and female), protomes, children and animals are the most popular ones.

In this paper the question concerning the production site of these figurines (Assos?) will be examined as well.

It has been proven that most of the terracotta figurines found at Assos are from the 5th cent. BC and a great percentage of them are Rhodian imports. It could be assumed that Rhodian imports are very significant in terms development of the local terracotta production at Assos. Also a group of locally produced figurines was observed.

Translated by Ergün Laflı

Visual and Semantic Analysis of the Ancient Terracotta Figurines

and Their Reflections to Modern Turkish Plastic Arts

Ayşegül TÜRK

Dr Ayşegül TÜRK (Ankara)

Gazi Üniversitesi, Mesleki Eğitim Fakültesi, Uygulamalı Sanatlar Eğitimi Bölümü,

Mesleki Resim Eğitimi Anabilim Dalı, Beşevler, TR-06500 Ankara, TURKEY.

<ayseguldurham@hotmail.com>

When we go back to past for thousands of years considering time and locality, it is seen that many forms, icons, symbols and signs are used. These forms, which were also used for these period’s people, were used for responding certain requirements. These people created certain forms for their selves, sometimes to create what is holy, sometimes to define the rituals in their daily lives and sometimes as symbols of fertility. Because for this period’s people, to understand today, future and future’s design is one of the biggest probleMs At these ages where human’s knowledge on nature and universe was limited, for today’s human, everything is clear and understandable. When we go back thousands of years, it can be seen that to understand, shape and gather vital results from future which is ambiguous, can only be possible by forms, magic, charms and myths. To explain events and facts are made clear and understandable by forms which strongly carry symbolic meanings and by meanings attributed to natural events.

We often cross with human’s reduced forms at archeological excavations. It is understood from the excavations that these small statues, called figurines, are made for different purposes. It will be necessary to make a new explanation for these forms according to their production form and purpose which are equipped and produced with different functions. Sometimes cooking technique and sometimes, the structure of the color gives detailed information about figurines’ meanings to today’s man. Their meanings also differ whether they are cooked specially or mistakenly. On the other side, it is understood that figurines were used at children’s education as toys and were planned as education material. Sometimes, holy meanings were attributed to these figurines and turned into religious worshipping objects. According to their making purpose, it is considered that there is referral to mother goddess form whether they are designed as worshipping object, as toy or just as an aesthetic form. According to the place where they were found, their meanings also differ. If they are designed and placed as holy, they refer to a different meaning and they carry new meanings according to their usage purpose. Sometimes, as a part of a ritual, specifically broken and mangled figurines gives too many clues to today\rquote s man about their functions.

Figurines’ main characteristics are their functionalities. Their functions may be their being sacrificial. Broken, thrown and mangled figurines complete their function and become representation objects. While they represent life, holy and procreation, they have the potential to carry on their assets alone.

The little giants’ figurines-, which are objects on their own, entered to today’s plastic art by the mediation of artists and designers and continued their continuity somehow. Today’s artists directly added figurines’ semantic and formal sides and created multi-layered meanings. By constructing a bridge with time and locality, while visualizing the meanings of past’s forms, artists made closer these forms by using contemporary expression manners. So, by the mediation of artists, figurines are created and presented again. Multiple meaning in a time loop is parallel with their self-representing. When we look at the artists who accept figurines as issue, we see artists from different generations and different styles: We encounter with painters such as Mevlüt Akyıldız, Tomur Atagök, İbrahim Balaban, Nevra Bozok, İhsan Çakıd, Can Göknil, Hüsamettin Koşan, Nazım Mehmet, Mustafa Pilevneli, Cemal Tollu, Berna Tücremen, Ayşegül Türk, Özdemir Yemenicioğlu, Özdemir Altan, Jale Yıldımır, sculptors such as Mehmet Aksoy, Ferit Özden and ceramic artists such as Sadi Diren who interiorize different expression languages and with their works of art.

When artists were establishing their own paintings by starting from figurines, out of form’s semantic references, their being impressive as simple and strong form also fronted artists to these forMs Artists, on the other hand, create rich connotations at their pictures by associating these forms which are perceived as symbols of fertility and birth with symbolic objects like life tree, pomegranate, moon and mirror. The works where woman identity and body are questioned both as meaning and form, draw attention to today’s woman problem.

On the other hand, figurines’ impressiveness as simple and strong form carries a reference attribution to the efforts to reach structural and semantic minimalism at today’s art. Generally at these works, where there is no technical and materialistic limitation, we see usage of oil painting on canvas, acrylic, metallic dyes, and oil painting on sand and original printing techniques.

At these works, the formal similarity comes from figurines’ semantic structure is interesting. The unity at this form becomes important as much as being the reason of artists’ establishing groups. Considering measures, artists accepted different options. Some of them accepted a minimal attitude and made the figure\rquote s measure the canvas’ measure to refer to the figurines’ original measures. But some of them in direct contradiction to the others, gianted the measures. For a period, artists worked on figurines, created works of art referring to them and again following the logic of figurines that is to say, after completing their functions- artistic process brought them to different areas. This process has the power of continuing like that for generations in itself.

Meaningful Miniatures?

Interpreting Function(s) and Meaning(s) for Nabataean Figurines

Christopher A. TUTTLE

Mr Christopher A. TUTTLE (Providence, RI/Amman)

American Center of Oriental Research in Amman, P.O. Box 2470, JO-11181 Amman, JORDAN.

<christopher_tuttle@brown.edu>

Figurines have been recovered from numerous sites throughout the Nabataean kingdom ever since the first archaeological excavations were undertaken in the early 20th century. Despite the relative wealth of figurines recovered, we do not yet understand either the extent of their distribution, or their purposes, within the Nabataean cultural milieu. Figurines are unique artifacts in the context of Nabataean material culture remains, in that they may represent the most abundant extant items which can be associated with individuals, or perhaps social sub-groupings. My research seeks to define the range of functions the figurines could have served and interpret the meanings they might have conveyed for the Nabataeans.

Inspired by theoretical models developed for studying figurines from prehistoric contexts, the methodologies to be presented were adapted and expanded to provide useful tools for analyzing historical era figurines. While the Nabataeans were in fact literate, the absence of internal textual accounts makes it not only appropriate, but actually necessary, to apply methodologies developed for the study of the material cultural remains of pre-literate societies.

My research seeks to define the range of functions the figurines could have served and interpret the meanings they might have conveyed for the Nabataeans. This presentation will examine and present methodological options for bridging the paradox between the empirical collection of data and its cognitive interpretation.

Figurines de terre cuite classiques et hellénistiques de l’antique Létè

Katerina TZANAVARI

Ms Katerina TZANAVARI (Thessaloniki)

Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, GR-54646 Thessaloniki, GREECE

<protocol@istepka.culture.gr>

Les sources littéraires et épigraphiques ainsi que les prospections et les fouilles dans l’agglomération et la nécropole de Létè, ville de Mygdonie en Macédoine, attestent une occupation continue de la région de la fin du VIe s. av. J.-C. à la fin du IVe s. ap. J.-C. Les figurines de terre cuite qui font l’objet de cette présentation ont été mises au jour à l’occasion de fouilles de sauvetage dans les nécropoles qui se développent sur une grande surface tout autour de la ville. Elles appartiennent à des contextes funéraires précisément datés dans les IVe et IIIe s. av. J.-C. par les trouvailles monétaires et la céramique, locale et importée.

Le répertoire iconographique est dominé par les protomés et, dans une moindre mesure, par des représentations de volatiles et de fruits. Les types tanagréens sont relativement rares ; ils datent du règne de Cassandre.

Dans le cadre des échanges économiques et culturels entre les cités de Grèce méridionale et les colonies des côtes de Macédoine, il apparaît que la circulation de vases importés d’Attique est intense tout au long du IVe siècle, alors qu’elle fléchit au début du iiie pour s’interrompre ensuite. Cette évolution s’explique apparemment par l’installation et le fonctionnement d’ateliers locaux dans les grandes villes de Macédoine, mais aussi dans les agglomérations de moindre importance. L’examen des types iconographiques des figurines, recueillies pour l’essentiel dans des tombes de cette période, conduit à des conclusions comparables pour la production coroplastique.

La communication abordera également d’autres questions, comme l’attribution des figurines à des ateliers sur la base de parallèles publiés de la même région, la fréquence des types iconographiques, ou encore des problèmes d’interprétation en relation avec l’âge et le sexe du défunt.

Traduction: Arthur Muller

A New Herakles Type and Archaic, East Greek Terracottas

at the Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone at Cyrene, Libya

Jaimee P. UHLENBROCK

Prof. Jaimee P. UHLENBROCK (New Paltz, NY)

State University of New York at New Paltz, New Paltz, NY 12561, USA.

<uhlenbrj@newpaltz.edu>

Excavations carried out by Professor Donald White between 1969 and 1979 at the middle terrace of the Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone at Cyrene, Libya, have yielded some 4,500 figurative terracottas, along with large quantities of pottery, marble and limestone sculpture, and miscellaneous small finds. Dating from the early 7th century B. C. to the 2nd century A. D., the coroplastic material from the Sanctuary represents the largest and most comprehensive ensemble of figurative terracotta votives known to date for Cyrenaica, if not for all of North Africa. The character of the ensemble is truly international with representative figurines from almost every major coroplastic exporting center of the Greek world. In general complexion, however, this votive ensemble most resembles the “grand depôt” from the Athenaion at Lindos, a fact that underscores its particular “East Greek” character, especially in the Archaic and Early Classical periods. As at numerous other Archaic Greek sites, imported East Greek perfume flasks and their related figurines belonging to Higgins’ so-called Aphrodite Group are well represented, yet the ensemble from Cyrene is distinguished by the presence of a type belonging to this group that has not yet been noted in the archaeological record. This portrays a standing Herakles wearing the lion skin and holding a club with one hand and the Apples of the Hesperides in the other. The fabric, technique, and style of this terracotta confirms its place within the Aphrodite Group. A discussion of this new type also occasions a discussion of the role played by the imported perfume flasks and their related figurines belonging to the Aphrodite Group within the social ordering of Archaic Cyrene.

The Presence of Aphrodite at the Sanctuary of “Nymph Koronia” at Elikon

Vivi VASILOPOULOU, Nelly SKOUMI, Athena CHIOTI

Dr Vivi VASILOPOULOU (Athens)

Hellenic Ministry of Culture

20-22 Bouboulinas Str., GR-10682, Athens, GREECE

<el_nassioti@yahoo.gr>

Mrs Nelly SKOUMI (Athens)

Ephorate of Paleoanthropology-Speleology, Hellenic Ministry of Culture

34b Ardittou Str., GR-116 36, Athens, GREECE

<el_nassioti@yahoo.gr>

Ms Athena CHIOTI (Athens)

Ephorate of Paleoanthropology-Speleology, Hellenic Ministry of Culture

34b Ardittou Str., GR-116 36, Athens, GREECE

<el_nassioti@yahoo.gr>

The cave of “Nymph Koronia” is located at Boeotia, at the NE slopes of mountain Elikon, at height of 820 m. The cave is 1800 m (in straight line) far from the village of Aghia Triada at Municipality of Koronia. Nowadays, the cave can be reached by a passable rural road 10 km long. The cave was discovered in 1984 and since 1989 the excavation is been supervised by Dr V. Vasilopoulou. Unfortunately, the repeated illicit diggings which occur every year cause the turbulence of the epichosis and the absence of stratigraphy. Consequently, there are many problems concerning the interpretation and the conservation of the finds.

According to the existing data, the cave has been used from the Bronze Age till the Hellenistic period but mainly from the Archaic till the Hellenistic times. The cave is referred for the first time by Strabon and Pausanias and it is identified as the Antre of Nymphs Livithrides. A great number of inscriptions incised on vessel and on one single till nowadays archaic figurine with the same inscription certify this identification.

Among the rich findings, the great amount of Aphrodite figurines in several types suggests the worship of the goddess at the cave. Aphrodite represents not only beauty and joy of love but also strength for the continuity and the renewal of life. This hypostasis of the goddess is related to the worship of the cave, which has to do with female fertility and labor. Aphrodite has been worshiped in other locations of Boeotia too.

The identification of the figurines is based on two criteria: nudity and symbols related to Aphrodite by mythology. These symbols are: (a) animals (goose, dove), (b) ribbon-band and (c) fruits (pomegranate, apple).

Indicative Bibliography

Β. Βασιλοπούλου, 2000: Από το «Άντρο των Λειβηθριδών» στον Ελικώνα, Επετηρίς της Εταιρείας Βοιωτικών Μελετών, Τόμος Γ’, Τεύχος α’, Γ’ Διεθνές Συνέδριο Βοιωτικών Μελετών, Θήβα, 4-8 Σεπτεμβρίου 1996, Αthens, 404-431.

Besques, S. 1986: Catalogue raisonné des figurines et reliefs en terre cuite grecs, étrusques et romains IV-I, Époques hellénistique et romaine. Italie Méridionale-Sicile-Sardaigne, Édition de la Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Paris.

Burkert, W. 1993: Αρχαία Ελληνική Θρησκεία, Αρχαϊκή και Κλασσική Εποχή, Εκδόσεις Καρδαμίτσα, Αthens.

Higgins, R.A. 1954: Catalogue of the Terracottas in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities British Museum, Oxford.

Κακριδής, Ι.Θ. (επιμ.) 1986: Ελληνική Μυθολογία, Τόμος 2: Οι Θεοί, Εκδοτική Αθηνών, Αthens.

Μητροπούλου, Ε. 1988: Η λατρεία της θεάς Αφροδίτης στη Βοιωτία, Επετηρίς της Εταιρείας Βοιωτικών Μελετών, Τόμος Α’, Τεύχος α’, Α’ Διεθνές Συνέδριο Βοιωτικών Μελετών, Θήβα, 10-14 Σεπτεμβρίου 1986, Αthens, 195-241.

Mollard-Besques, S. 1963: Myrina II, Catalogue raisonné des figurines et reliefs en terre cuite grecs et romains, Musée du Louvre et Collections des Universités de France, Édition des Musées Nationaux, Paris.

Ρισπέν, Ζ.: Ελληνική Μυθολογία, Εκδόσεις Τριήρης, Αthens.

Immaturi et Innupti.

Die figürlichen Terrakotten Hispaniens im Bereich des Bestattungswesen

D. Desiderio VAQUERIZO GIL

Prof. D. Desiderio VAQUERIZO GIL (Cordova)

Catedrático de Arqueología, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Córdoba, Plaza del Cardenal Salazar, 3, E-14003 Córdoba, SPAIN.

<aa1vagid@uco.es>

Bei den figürlichen Terrakotten handelte es sich um ein im Alltag des Römischen Imperiums allgegenwärtiges Element. Auch bei verschiedenen, tief in der römischen Gesellschaft verwurzelten Volksfesten spielten diese Terrakotta-Figuren eine wichtige Rolle, was auch die außergewöhnliche Anzahl an Figuren erklärt. Dies geschah fast ausschließlich zwischen der Mitte des 1. Jahrhunderts und der Mitte des 3. Jahrhunderts n. Chr. und in vermehrter Form im 2. Jahrhundert während der antoninischen Dynastie.

Im Falle von Sanktuarien und Lararien scheint es, dass ihre Interpretation keine Zweifel lässt. Aber die Terrakotta-Figuren wurden gewöhnlich auch als Geschenk zwischen den Menschen verwendet und dienten vor allem, wenn wir uns nach der Auffassung älterer Autoren richten, um Kinder zu beschenken, die ihrerseits in ihnen einen Beweis der Zuneigung sahen, einen materiellen Gegenstand, mit dem sie nach ihrer kindlichen Vorstellung spielen und auf diese Weise den Erwachsenen nacheifern konnten.

Aus diesem Grund schlussfolgere ich, dass die Verwendung von figürlichen Terrakotten als Grabbeigabe in Gräbern von Kindern und Jugendlichen, die frühzeitig verstorben waren, aus sozialer und kultureller Sicht als eines der entscheidenden Elemente des Kindsalters zu verstehen ist, wie es auch die Bulla, ein Amulett, das von den Jungen bis zur Mündigkeit getragen wurde, und die Puppen für die Mädchen waren.

Die Beigabe von Terrakotta-Figuren in Gräbern von Jungen und Mädchen, insbesondere bei letzteren, war für die Familienangehörigen und Freunde, die dem funus beiwohnten, ein soziales Symbol für das zerstörte Leben und auch für Reinheit: Bei ihnen handelte es sich um Kinder, die noch nicht das Alter erreicht hatten, in dem man nicht mehr mit Figlina spielte, und die somit frühzeitig verstorben sind, immaturi et innupti (Tertulian, De anima, 56). Auf diese Weise würde sich auch erklären, weshalb diese Objekte bisweilen in Gräbern von Erwachsenen, wiederum insbesondere in Gräbern von Frauen, aufgetaucht sind: Frauen, die noch als Jungfrau entweder vor Erreichen des heiratsfähigen Alters oder unverheiratet verstorben sind.

Aphrodite auf der Akropolis von Perge? Terrakottastatuetten aus F1

Waltrud WAMSER-KRASZNAI, Matthias RECKE

Dr Waltrud WAMSER-KRASZNAI (Giessen)

Kleebergerstrasse 10, D-35510 Butzbach, GERMANY

<wamser_krasznai@yahoo.de>

Dr Matthias RECKE (Giessen)

Professur für Klassische Archäologie, Justus Liebig-Universtität Gießen, Otto-Behaghel-Str. 10,

D-35394 Giessen, GERMANY.

<Matthias.Recke@geschichte.uni-giessen.de>; <Matthias.Recke@t-online.de>

In den Jahren 1994 bis 2004 fanden unter der Leitung von H. Abbasoğlu (Istanbul) und W. Martini (Giessen) Surveys, Sondagen und Ausgrabungen auf der Akropolis von Perge statt. Die meisten Terrakotten – es sind ca. 45 Objekte – stammen von der Fläche 1 (F1), zu der auch ein Bothros mit 10 Tonfiguren und zahllosen Scherben von Gebrauchskeramik gehört. Die ikonographischen Themen sind breit gestreut; es wurden verschiedene Tierarten, Reiter, Jünglings- und Knabenfiguren, weibliche Gewandstatuetten, Köpfe und nackte Torsen gefunden. Ihre Enstehungszeit reicht von der Frühklassik bis zum Hellenismus. Einige Darstellungen erinnern an den Kreis der Aphrodite; andere stehen dieser Göttin nahe, sind aber nicht ausschliesslich auf sie bezogen. Bei einer dritten Gruppe ist die Verbindung zu einer weiblichen Gottheit so wenig auszuschliessen wie die zu anderen Göttern. Welche Informationen geben uns die Terrakotten selbst zu ihrer Deutung und über die Art ihrer Verwendung? Und –wenn wir trotz der geringen Stückzahl von Votivfiguren ausgehen – welcher Gottheit waren sie geweiht?

Liegen oder stehen?

Überlegungen zur Aufstellungspraxis hellenistischer Terrakotten

am Beispiel des Fundkomplexes auf dem Grundstück E5 in Priene

Eva WINTER

Dr Eva WINTER (Frankfurt)

Institut für Archäologische Wissenschaften der J.W. Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main,

Klassische Archäologie, Hauspostfach 146, Grüneburgplatz 1, D-60629 Frankfurt/Main, GERMANY

<E.Winter@em.uni-frankfurt.de>

In den Jahren 2000-2004 wurde im westlichen Stadtgebiet von Priene, auf der Südseite der Theaterstraße das Grundstück E5 in großen Teilen freigelegt. Nach ersten Auswertungen der Fundkeramik und der Münzen wurde dort im frühen 3. Jh. v. Chr. ein Gebäude errichtet und knapp 200 Jahre später nach einer Zerstörung aufgegeben. Die Fundterrakotten, die sowohl aus jenen Schichten, die der Nutzungszeit des Gebäudes zuzuordnen sind, als auch aus einer Schuttschicht stammen, die in ausgustäischer Zeit auf dem Grundstück abgelagert wurde, erweitern in mehrfacher Hinsicht den bisherigen Kenntnisstand zur prienesischen Koroplastik: Neben in Priene bislang nicht nachgewiesenen Typen und deren Einbindung in die lokale Chronologie sind ebenso Antworten auf Fragen nach den Aufstellungsmodi hellenistischer figürlicher Terrakotten in Priene zu formulieren.

Agora de Thessalonique: les terres cuites de l’ensemble des bains

Elektra ZOGRAPHOU

Mrs Elektra ZOGRAPHOU (Serres)

28th Ephoria of the Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Rakttzi 10-12, Serres, GREECE

<elektrazog@yahoo.com>

À l’angle sud-est de l’agora romaine de Thessalonique a été mis au jour un complexe de bains plus ancien, qui a fonctionné du IIe s. av. J.-C. au Ier s. ap. J.-C. Dans cet ensemble, une salle rectangulaire, qui communiquait avec la rotonde balnéaire et dont l’étage supérieur était divisé en petites pièces, se distingue par le nombre, la variété et la qualité des trouvailles mobilières.

Avec les nombreuses lampes, les vases en terra sigillata, les objets en verre, mais aussi la vaisselle de stockage et de cuisson, les figurines de terre cuite constituent l’un des ensembles de trouvailles les plus représentatifs du complexe balnéaire. Par leur thème, ces figurines se rattachent dans leur majorité aux spectacles et au théâtre, au jeu et plus généralement aux distractions.

Le théâtre est représenté par un groupe de figurines d’acteurs, ou l’on reconnaît des presonnages de la tragédie, mais aussi quelques uns des rôles fondamentaux de la nouvelle Comédie. Les spectacles publics sont évoqués par des figurines de gladiateurs et de lutteurs, dérivant clairement d’archétypes italiens. Enfin, trouvailles significatives quant à la destination de cette salle, un petit phallus avec tige mobile et deux figurines d’esclaves ithyphalliques.

Danseurs, poupées, femmes drapées debout et assises, têtes féminines et viriles avec des coiffures d’époque augustéenne, philosophes et leurs compagnons (enfants et animaux), groupes érotiques (avec des modèle sitaliens là aussi) constituent une autre part du répertoire coroplastique recueilli dans le complexe balnéaire.

Du panthéon classique on reconnaît, directement ou indirectement, Zeus, Athéna, Aphrodite, Dionysos. Le monde animal est représenté par quelques espèces les plus caractéristiques (bovins, ovi-caprinés, volatiles). À cela s’ajoutent quelques objets isolés, comme une représentation de berceau (qui servait vraisemblement de grelot), ou celles d’autels, ornés des habituelles guirlandes.

Tous ces objets sont aujourd’hui isolés de leur contexte, celui de leur espace et de leur époque, fragmentés par le poids des ruines et celui des siècles. Mais, pour qui les examine avec attention, ils sont une précieuse source d’information. La forme de la salle en question et son mobilier révèlent sa destination : au rez-de-chaussée on devait préparer et servir des repas. Le vin et la relaxation du bain dans les pièces voisines aidant, les distractions – danses, chants, et saynètes improvisées – devaient prolonger les agapes. Plus tard encore, ces bonnes dispositions appelant d’autres jeux, on devait enchaîner dans les petites pièces de l’étage avec des activités érotiques, comme celles que représente une catégorie de lampes bien caractéristiques.

Traduction: Arthur Muller


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